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guage of the country, Malayalim,* but the bishop, Mar Athanasius, is opposed to the desire of the English missionaries to use the native language for the whole of the divine service.
As the Jacobites in Asiatic Turkey are very poor, the Patriarchs of Antioch always endeavored to obtain as large amounts of money as possible from the Churches of Malabar. If the amount sent did not come up to their expectation, it was regarded by them as a proof of unfaithfulness on the part of the Indian Metropolitan. He was frequently deposed from office, and a successor sent. In 1848 there were at the same time five Metropolitans. None of them was recognized by the government. In 1857 the Directory of the East India Company ordered one out of the country, and declared that the Indian Christians had a right to acknowledge whom they pleased. In 1866 the native bishop, Mar Athanasius, chose a coadjutor likewise from the family of Palakommatta. These indications of defection alarmed the Patriarch of Antioch, Ignatius. He went, in 1874, to England to vindicate his claim. In 1875 he went to India, where his arrival, which had no precedent in the history of the Indian Church, produced great confusion.
About the same time the Patriarch of the United Syrian or Chaldean Church, which is connected with Rome, made an attempt to extend his jurisdiction over the native Indian Christians of Malabar, who thus far had been subject to the Latin Vicar Apostolic of Verapoly. It appears that many of these Christians had expressed a wish to have native bishops like Mar Athanasius, and that, in 1856, an embassy had been sent to Bagdad, the residence of the Chaldean Patriarch. The latter sent, in 1875, a bishop of his rite, Melius, to India, but the Papal delegate at once pronounced against this bishop the sentence of excommunication. The government of the two countries in which these native Christians live, Cochin and Travancore, have issued proclamations, in which they refer the rival bishops to the courts. The final decision of the latter had not yet been given when Mr. Schlagintweit wrote this part of his work. These conflicts of jurisdiction gave rise to a new sect, called the "Six Years' People," which was founded in 1875, and predicted the second arrival of Christ for the year 1881. The sect has been joined by the Anglican clergyman, Justus Joseph, and several Brahmans who had been converted by him.
To the above abstracts from the work of Professor Schlagintweit we add a few facts from other sources. Enumerations, to ascertain the religious creed of the inhabitants of India, were taken in the various provinces during the years 1868 to 1876: in Berar and the Punjab 1868, in Oude 1869, in Ajmere and Coorg 1871, and in the remaining provinces from 1872 to 1876. A verification of all these returns, with the results of the general census of India, furnished the following classification of the leading creeds in the provinces under British administration:—
*In this language, the Hungarian Jesuit, Hanxleden, who died in Malabar on March 20, 1732, composed several excellent poems. His history of Saint Gonevieve in verse is still a popular book among the native Christinas.
The following table shows the number of Christians in each of the provinces of India under British administration:—
North-west Provinces 22,196
Central Provinces 10,477
British Burmah 52,299
It must be remembered that all the above figures refer to the provinces under direct British administration, and do not include the feudatory or native States. The latter have an aggregate population of 48,298,895. Two of the States of this class have already been referred to, as containing a Christian population of about 600.000. This, alone, would raise the Christian population of British India at 1,500,000. It must further be remarked that, as a general rule, the census appears to enumerate as Christians only those who have formally been received into one of the Christian denominations, not those who had declared their intention to become, Christians or who regularly attended Christian service. The total force of the Protestant Missionary Societies in India was represented, in 1879, by 1,833 ordained and assistant missionaries, and 88,149 communicants. The number of persons actually connected with Protestant communities in India, Ceylon, and Burmah was reckoned, in 1879, at 460,000. The nominally (Protestant) Christian population was estimated in the same year at 2,500,000, (Baptist Missionary Magazine, July, 1879.)
The organization of the Roman Catholic hierarchy in India* begins with the establishment of the Portuguese bishopric of Goa in 1533. In 1557 Goa was made an archbishopric, and in the same year two other episcopal sees, Cochin and Malacca, were established. When a part of the Christians of Saint Thomas united with Rome, in 1599, their archbishopric Angamala was placed, in 1600, as suffragan see under the archbishop of Goa. In 1605 it was again made an archbishopric, but the see was transferred to Cranganor. In 1606 a new bishopric was established on the eastern coast at Meliapoor. Other suffragan sees of Goa were established, in 1576 at Macao, on the coast of China, in 1588 at Funay, iu Japan, in 1690 at Peking and Nankin. Then the ecclesiastical province embraced India, China, Japan, the Indian Islands, and Eastern Africa, exceeding, in point of territory, every other ecclesiastical province of the Roman Catholic Church. The King of Portugal had a right of nominating the bishops of these sees, but as this right was not exercised and the suffragan sees remained generally vacant, the Pope appointed, with
*The following information on the Soman Catholio Church is chiefly taken from an article in the KatholUche Missionen, 1880, January and May.
out the consent of Portugal, vicars apostolic to exercise the episcopal functions. The first vicar apostolic was appointed for Malabar in 1659, and many others followed, until Pope Gregory XVI., in 1838, confined the archdiocese of Goa to the Portuguese possessions Gujerate and a few Portuguese congregations in British India, dissolved the bishoprics of Cranganor, Cochin, Meliapoor, and Malacca, and divided the whole of the British possessions among the vicariates apostolic. For nearly two hundred years the Portuguese government, aided by most of the Portuguese bishops and priests in India, made a violent opposition to the measures adopted by the Pope, but they have finally recognized their resistance as useless. In 1879 the Church had in British India, inclusive of the Portuguese and French possessions, twenty-two dioceses, nearly all called vicariates apostolic. The aggregate population is given as about 1,450,000.
Art. X.—Foreign Literary Intelligence.
Among the theological text-books used at the German universities Hagenbach's Encyclopedia and Methodology has long occupied a prominent place. Through the author's lifetime it has passed through nine editions, and now, after his death, the tenth edition has been published by Prof. E. Kautzsch, (Encyclopadie und Mcthodologie der theologhchen Wissenschaften. Leipz. 1880.) The book is especially complete in its literary department, and it is almost indispensable to those who wish to inform themselves on the entire literature o:i any particular subject.
No less than three histories of Christian missions are now in the course of publication in Germany: 1. Dr. Burckhardt's Kleins Mtittion»bihliothe]c, the second edition of which is published by Dr. Grundemann, the well-known author of the Missionsatlas; 2. Mimonsbilder, published at Calw; and, 8, the ''History of Christian Missions among Pagans," by Dr. Kalkar, one of the foremost theologians of Denmark, who publishes simultaneously with the Danish original a German translation. Dr. Burckhardt's Mitnionsbibliothek is especially noted for its valuable geographical and ethnological introductions. The Mtitsioiuibilder are edited by Dr. Gundert, one of the best informed German writers on Christian missions. Dr. Kalkar's history is the only one which embraces within its Bcope the Roman Catholic missions, the two other confining themselves to the history of Protestant missions.
Tiele's " Outline of the History of Religion," which was originally published in 1876 in the Dutch language, at Amsterdam, and in 1877 appeared in an English translation, has now been translated into German by Dr. Weber, (Compendium der fieligionsgetchichte. Berlin.' 1880.) The work is gen -rally regarded as the best on the subject which has thus far appeared. The German translation is indebted to the author for several new contributions, and the section which relates to the later history of Brahmanism has been entirely rewritten. The author of the work is Professor of the General History of Religion at the Dutch University of Leyden. All the Dutch universities have a special chair for the general history of religion, and after this model a special professorship for the same study has been established at the College de France, at Paris, and at the Catholic University of the same city.
A work of great learning on the primitive history of the human race has been published by Prof. Franc Lenormant, a scholar already very favorably known by a number of other works on ancient history, (Les origines de Vhistoire d'aprh la Bible et let traditions des peuplet orientaux. Paris, 1880.) As the title indicates, the book compares the accounts of the Bible on the origin of man with the traditions of other Oriental nations. The first volume contains the time from the creation of man to the deluge; other volumes are to follow. The matter given in this first volume is divided into the following groups: The creation of man, the fall, the cherubim and the flaming sword, the fratricide and the foundation of the first city, the Bethites and the Cainites, the ten antediluvian patriarchs, the children of God and the daughters of men, the deluge. Numerous appendices contain translations and partly explanations of the most important documents from which the parallel accounts have been taken, as the cuneiform texts, Berosus, Sanchoniathon, Damascus, etc. A very explicit index facilitates the use of the book. At the head of his preface the author places the words of Montaigne: C'est ici, lecteurs, un livre de bonne foy; and he wishes to indicate by them that his investigations do not conflict with the belief in the Christian revelation and in the Catholic Church, to which the author belongs.
A new periodical has been begun in France, which is to be exclusively devoted to the history of religions. Its full title is: Revue de Vhistoire des religions publiie sous la direction de M. Maurice Vemet atec le contours de MM. A. Barth, A. Bouche-Leclerq, P. Decharme, etc. Every year six numbers will be published. Its character will be exclusively historical and polemical, and dogmatic articles will be excluded. As the history of the Christian Church has already special organs, this periodical will chiefly treat of the ancient and modern religions of the East and the ancient religions of the West. It will, however, make an exception in regard to the introduction of Christianity in the middle and in the north of Europe. Every number of the Review will have seven sections: 1. Essays; 2. Critical reviews of recent literature by several contributors, as, on Ancient Egypt, by Maspero; on Old-Aryan Mythology and the Indian Religions, by A. Barth ; on Assyria, by St. Gayard; on Greece, by Decharme; on Italy, by BouchG-Leclerq; on the Mythology of Gaul, by Gardoz; on Judaism and Christianity, by the editor-in-chief; 8. Notices and Documents; 4. Comptes Rendus; 5. Contents of other Periodicals; 6. Chronicles; 7. Bibliography.
Fourth Series, Vol. XXXII.—50
Art. X.—QUARTERLY BOOK-TABLE.
Religion, Theology, and Biblical Literature.
Pre-adamilcs; or, A^)emonstration of the Existence of Men before Adam ; together with a Study of their Condition, Antiquity, Racial Affinities, and Progressive Dispersion over the Earth. With Charts and other Illustrations. By AlexAnder Wischell, LL.D. 8vo., pp. 500. Chicago: S. G. Grigg k Co. London:' Trubner & Co. 1880.
Of Dr. Winchell's successive publications none appears to have made so powerful an impression upon the public, mind as the present magnificent volume. With the single exception of the uncandid and indiscriminate depreciation against the book, or rather against its author, in the "Independent," every notice which we have seen in the various periodicals, secular, religious, literary, or scientific, has been courteous and appreciative. These various notices clearly indicate that, however popular fancy may be excited by the disturbing utterances of science, a real and deep interest is felt in behalf of a real adjustment between science and Scripture. The great mastery of the vast subject manifested in the work, and the boldness, frankness, and sincerity of the spirit, will command the attention of even those who are not ready to adopt the conclusions of the volume in its attempt at furnishing at least one method of reconciliation. Without claiming to measure swords with an expert on his own grounds, we venture to state wherein his solutions, which are really addressed ad populum, do not convey a clear conviction to our own mind as one of the people.
The book does honor to the enterprising Chicago house that issues it by its entire style of material and execution, and its copious illustrations, among which especially is a fine theoretical map of the origin and migrations of the race, after the example of Haeckel, but with modifications by Dr. W. that make it truly his own. We may best illustrate Dr. Winchell's scheme under guidance of this map. Assuming then that our race takes origin at the now submerged land of Lemuria, of which Madagascar is an unburied remnant, our author traces the various routes of migration over the earth. From this primordial spot, first, there departs a line eastward to Australia, and thence over the Pacific isles to South America; and this marks the track of the earliest and lowest of the human race, the Australians. Next, westward curves a line Into the southern half of Africa, cutting various graceful flourishes, and ending with an arrow's head at various points, and this is the next earliest and lowest race, the Negroes. The third line,