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16. Supra commemoravi. See p. 62, line 21.
21. Postularent; G. 497. – Eos; object of dederent.
22. Dederent. Supply ut. G. 499, 2.
23. Se invito, without his (Caesar's) consent. G. 431.

24. Sui imperii aut potestatis, under (of) his sway (rule) or porer. G. 401.

29. Occupationibus rei publicae, by his public duties; lit., occupations of state.

30. Exercitum Rhenum; G. 376.
32. Ejus exercitus, of his (Caesar's) army.

34. Opinione et amicitia, by the reputation and friendship. 66 1. Suae ... dignitatis esse, to be consistent with his own dignity or

that of the Roman people. G. 402.

3. Proponebatur, was clearly seen; lit., was set before him.

4. Id sibi contendendum, that he must attempt it. He accordingly proceeded to bridge the Rhine, probably near Bonn.

6. Tigna bina sesquipedalia, two piles each a foot and a half thick. Tigna is the object of jungebat. The distributive bina is used because there were several pairs. See plan on the next page.

7. Dimensa ad altitudinem, etc., adapted to the depth of the river. The longest piles would, of course, be needed in the deepest water.

8. Intervallo ... jungebat. This means that the two piles were made fast to each other, but were at the same time kept two feet apart. This was probably done by means of strong cross-pieces or ties (fibulis, line 16 below).- Haec quum ... adegerat, when, by means of machines, he had let these down into the water (immissa), had secured them there (defixerat), and had driven them down with rammers.

10. Non sublicae ... perpendiculum, not like (in the manner of) an ordinary pile, vertically (directe ad perpendiculum); lit., entirely according to the plumb-line.

11. Secundum ... fluminis, according to the current (nature) of the river;

i. e., down the stream. 12. His contraria, opposite to these. G. 391. Contraria agrees with tigna, to be supplied after duo=bina. Duo is admissible in this instance, because the meaning is perfectly clear from bina, in line 6 above.

13. Intervallo pedum ... parte, at the distance of forty feet doron the river (ab inferiore parte). - Contra vim . conversa, turned against the force and current of the river. Thus the upper pair of piles sloped down the river, and the lower pair up the river. See plan.

14. Haec utraque, these troo pairs.

15. Quantum ... distabat, which was the distance betiseen the piles ; lit., as much as the joint of these piles opened ; i. e., the interval between the two piles was two feet, and accordingly a beam two feet thick (bipe


dalis) was let in between them, and connected this pair of piles with the 66 opposite pair, forty feet lower down the river.

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a Tigna bina sesquipedalia. - His contraria dao. -c Bipedales trabes. — d Bivae utrimque fibulae. —

.-e Directa materia. --f Longurii.- g Crates.h Sublicae obliquae.- i Defensores.

16. Binis utrimque fibulis, with two ties on each side ; i. e., at each extremity of the beam. See plan.

17. Quibus disclusis ... revinctis, as these (i. e., the two opposite


66 pairs of piles) were kept apart, and also secured in the opposite direction.

Quibus disclusis relates to what has already been described in haec utraque distinebantur. The two pairs of piles inclining towards each other were prevented from inclining too far by the cross pieces or ties inserted in the two acute angles which the large connecting beam made with those piles. The action implied hy in contrariam partem revinctis has not been described, because it is at once apparent. As the opposite pairs of piles inclined towards cach other, the whole weight of the bridge tended to bring them nearer together. This tendency was just the opposite of the action denoted by disclusis, and is accordingly well expressed by in contrariam partem revinctis.

20. Haec ... contexebantur, these were connected by timbers placed in the direction of the length of the bridge. Caesar, having first described one pier, now proceeds to show how the scveral piers were connected, and how the bridge was covered.

23. Quae ... exciperent; G. 497, 1.

24. Aliae item ... spatio, others also at a small distance above the bridge. The brevity of the description does not enable us to decide positively whether these were connected with the bridge or not. The words mediocri spatio render it somewhat doubtful, but they may refer merely to the lower end of the pile. Colonel August Von Cohausen, of the Prussian Corps of Engineers, in an elaborate and carefully prepared work upon this bridge, takes this view of the subject, and accordingly connects the piles with the bridge itself. See plan.

XVIII., XIX. Caesar makes an Incursion into

Germany. 28. Diebus; G. 429. - Quibus ... coepta erat, after the materials began to be collected. G. 430, note 2; 297, I., 1.

35. Quos ex Tencteris. This refers to the cavalry, who had taken refuge among the Sigambri. See p. 65, lines 15 to 20.

37. In solitudinem. The accusative is necessary to imply that they first went into the desert before they concealed themselves in it.

5. Suebos; subject of dimisisse.
7. Uti demigrarent; G. 497, II.
9. Hunc esse ...

... regionem, that this place had been selected near the centre of those regions. -- Medium agrees with hunc and governs regionum. G. 399.

11. Ibi, there ; i., e., in the same place.

13. His rebus; explained by the clauses ut ... injiceret, ut ulcisceretur, etc.

17. Profectum; from proficio, not from proficiscor.





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XX.-XXII. Caesar prepares to invade Britain.
23. Et si tempus. deficeret, even if the season should be insuffi- 67
cient; i. e., too short.

28. His ipsis; i. e., mercatoribus.

30. Gallias. Observe the force of the plural referring to the several
divisions. See Dict.

31. Quanta esset; Indirect Question depending upon reperire. G. 529.
33. Neque qui; construe with portus.
36. Ad ... cognoscenda; construe with praemittit.
37. Idoneum. arbitratus, thinking him to be a suitable person.
1. Ad se; G. 449, 1. - Quam primum; G. 170, 2.
3. Huc; construe with convenire.

4. Quam. The antecedent is classem. - Ad Veneticum bellum.
See p. 48, line 27.

7. Qui polliceantur; G. 497.
8. Dare; for daturos esse. G. 537, note.

11. Commium; object of mittit. Atrebatibus superatis ; i. e., in
the great battle of the Sambre. See p. 39, line 35.

12. Ibi, there; i. e., among the Atrebates.
14. Magni, of great weight, or value. G. 403,

15. Quas possit. Supply adire. - Adeat; G. 499, 2. — Ut fidem
sequantur, to seek (follow) the alliance.

16. Se; i. e., Caesarem.

17. Quantum facultatis, so far as the opportunity ; lit., as of oppor-
tunity. -- Quantum; subject of potuit. — Facultatis ; Partitive Geni-
tive.- Ei qui, to him who; i. e., to one who.

21. In his locis; i. e., among the Morini. See line 2 above.
23. De... consilio, for their past conduct. Sce p. 57.

24. Homines; in apposition with the omitted subject of fecissent. G.
363, 2. - Consuetudinis; G. 399, I., 2.

25. Imperasset; Fut. Perfect in the Direct Discourse. G. 525, 2.
29. Has ... occupationes, engagements in these trifling affairs.
30. Britanniae, to Britain; i. e., to the invasion of Britain. G. 386.
31. Ils; G. 384, II.

32. Coactis contractisque, collected and brought together. Contrac-
tis is more specific than coactis, and refers to the final assembling of the
vessels at the place of embarkation.

34. Quod navium; G. 397, 3.

35. Praefectis. These were commanders of the auxiliaries. - Huc
accedebant, to this number of vessels (lit., hither) were to be added.
2. In Menapios; construe with ducendum.




XXIII. - XXVI. Caesar lands in Britain. 8. Solvit, set sail. Supply nares. Caesar probably sailed from the port Itius, which is expressly mentioned as the place from which he embarked on his second expedition into Britain. See p. 77, line 5; also Dict. Itius.

9. Ulteriorem portum, the farther port ; i. e., farther to the east ; referring to the place where the eighteen vessels assigned to the cavalry had been detained. See p. 68, lines 36 to 38.

11. Hora quarta, about the fourth hour ; i. e., about ten o'clock in the morning, probably on the 16th of August. G. 645.

16. Dum convenirent; G. 519, II., 2.
19. Ex Voluseno cognosset. See p. 68, lines 17 to 20.

20. Monuit ... administrarentur, admonished them that all things should be performed, etc. --Ut rei ... haberent explains ad nutum ... administrarentur.

21. Ut quae ... haberent, since they had ; lit., as (things) which had. G. 517, 3, 1).

22. Ad nutum et ad tempus, at the word of command (i, e., instantaneously), and at the proper moment.

24. Secundum; construe with ventum and aestum.

25. Aperto ... constituit, he anchored off an open and level shore ; probably on the coast of Deal. G. 425, II., 1.

28. Quo genere, which kind (of force). G. 421, I.
32. Militibus; construe with erat desilierdum. G. 388.
35. Iuli, they ; i. e.,


enemy. 36. Omnibus ... expediti, with the free use of all their limbs. G. 424.

38. Insuefactos, accustomed to this work; i.e., to this mode of warfare. 70 4. Naves longas; construe with removeri jussit.

5. Motus ... expeditior, their movement easier to use ; lit., for' (to) use ; i. e., they were more easily managed.

6. Removeri, submoveri. Removere means to remove, referring simply to a change of position, while submovere means to dislodge, to take out of the way.

9. Quae res, which movement. - Usui nostris; G. 390.

13. Qui, he who. This refers to the chief centurion, who bore the eagle; the standard of the legion.

16. Aquilam ... prodere. The loss of the eagle would be a great disgrace.

17. Praestitero; G. 473, 1.
19. Cohortati inter se, having exhorted one another. G. 448, note.
21. Conspexissent. Supply milites as subject.
23. Nostri; subject of perturbabantur.

i. e.,

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