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144 11. Mlum;'G. 450, 4.

12. Esset necesse, was destined.

13. Eundemque dixisse, and that he had also said. G. 451, 3. – Fatalem ad, destined for.

14. Qui esset, since it toas. G. 517.

15. Post virginum absolutionem, since the acquittal of the virgins, i. e., of the Vestal virgins, the virgin priestesses of Vesta, who guarded the perpetual fire in the temple of that goddess. Of the trial itself, nothing further is known. - Capitolii incensionem. From some unknown cause, the capitol, i. e., the temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill, was burned 83 B. C.

16. Hanc controversiam, a controversy on this point, lit., this controversy.

18. Saturnalibus, on the Saturnalia, the festival of Saturn, cele. brated with general festivity and merriment on the nineteenth of December.

19. Nimium longum, too long, i. e., too long to wait, too long a postponementi

V. The Conviction and Confession of the Prisoners.

20. Ne longum sit, not to be tedious. This clnuse does not express the purpose of jussimus, but of some verb or expression which may be readily snpplied, as, I proceed at once to state, etc. G. 499, 2, foot-note 2. - Tabellas; i. e., the waxen tablets on which the letters were written.

21. A quoque; construe with datae ; supply esse. G. 534, note.

22. Signum. The seal was placed upon the knot of the string (linum) with which the tablets were secured. - Nos linum incidimus, roe cut the string; the usual way of opening a Roman letter.

25. Orare; like sese ... facturum esse, subject of erat scriptum, that he asked.-- Sibi recepissent, had promised him, more literally, had undertaken for him. - Sibi refers, not to the ambassadors, but to the writer of the letter, Cethegus.

26. Qui aliquid tamen respondisset, who had yet (i. e., notwithstanding his manifest guilt) made some reply=though he had, etc.; Relative of Concession. G. 515, III.

28. Ferramentorum; G. 399.
32. In eandem fere sententiam, to nearly the same purport.
34. Cognosceretne; G. 529, 1.

35. Imago avi tui, the image of your grandfather. The head of some ancestor was not an uncommon device upon a Roman seal. The grandfather was Publins Cornclius Lentulus, who was consul 162 B. C

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He also aided L. Opimius, the consul in the year 121 B. C., against Gaius 144
Gracchus. Scc p. 118, lines 11 to 15.

36. Quae quidem etiam muta (this, and i.e., imago) indeed, even though speechless.

2. Eadem ratione, of the same character, i. e., of the same tenor 146 and purport as the letters already read. Abl. of Characteristic. Some critics treat ratione as Abl. of Manner, and render, in like manner.

3. Si ... vellet. This conditional sentence, with its omitted conclusion implied in feci potestatem, is of the nature of Indirect Discourse, thus : I gave him permission to speak (i. e., I told him he might speak), if he wished, etc. Hence vellet, Imperf. Subj. G. 524; 493, 1.

5. Edito, recorded. The testimony was at once put in writing.

6. Quid sibi ... iis, what he had to do with them, lit., what there was to him with them. G. 387. — Domum; G. 380, II., 2, 1).

7. Itemque a Volturcio. Supply quaesirit. - Quum respondis. sent; G. 521, II.,

8. Per quem, through whose agency. Lat. Comp. 231, VI. Quem refers to the freedman, P. Umbrenus, whom Lentulus employed for this purpose.

10. Subito scelere demens, suddenly bereft of reason through guilt, i. e., the consciousness of guilt.

11. Quum id ... infitiari, though he might have denied it. G.515, III.; 537, 1.

15. Qua superabat omnes, in which he surpassed all, i. e., all others. Qun, Abl. of Specification.

19. Vehementissime perturbatus, though most violently agitated. G. 549, 2.

20. Erant sine nomine, it was without a signature, i. e., anony

mous.

22. Quem in locum, into what a position, referring to the fact that be was already committed to the work.

24. Etiam infimorum, even of the lowest, with special reference to slaves,

25. Quum primo, though at first. - Coepisset; G. 515, III.

27. Quum illa, while those things. Ila, which is explained by tabellae, signa, manus, and confessio, in apposition with it, is the subject of risa sunt. --Certissima, very certain.

29. Tum multo certiora illa, those are much more certain, Tum is the correlative of quum above, line 27, G. 554, I., 5, and may not improperly be omitted in translating.

30. Obstupuerant, were so stupefied, lit., had become so stupefied.
31. Inter se aspiciebant, looked at one another. G. 448, note.

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state.

VI. The Action of the Senate. 145 35. De summa re publica, in regard to the highest welfare of the

-Quid ... placeret; Indirect Question, serving as a second Accus. after consulrai. G. 375.

36. A principibus, the leading men. The term is applied especially to the chief of the senate, the consuls-elect, and the ex-consuls. According to Roman custom, they had a right to be heard before the other

senators. 146 1. Sine ulla varietate, without a dissenting roice, i. e., unanimously.

2. Nondum est perscriptum. The decrces of the senate were usually engraved upon brazen tablets.

3. Censuerit. See Syn. L. C. 576.

4. Gratiae aguntur. See Syn. L. C. 548.- Quod... sit liberata. Observe the force of the Subj., showing that the reason was assigned by the senate, not by Cicero. G. 516, II.

7. Usus essem; Pluperfect, as the Historical Present laudantur is here treated as an Historical tense, but, above, aguntur is treated as a Principal tense. Hence the Perfect sit liberata. G. 495, II.

8. Collegae meo, my colleague, i, e., in the consulship. C. Antonius, the colleague here referred to, was at first supposed to be more or less in sympathy with Catiline, but Cicero soon succeeded in winning him to the cause of the republic. See Introduction, p. 326.

9. Conjurationis; G. 399, I., 3.

10. A suis ... consiliis, from his own counsels and those of the ropublic. - Ita ut, that.

11. Quum ... abdicasset, when he had abdicated the praetorship. This clause in the decree was absolutely essential, as no Roman magistrate could be punished so long as he held office. G. 414, I.

12. In custodiam. See note on in custodiam dedisti, p. 123, line 32. 14. Idem hoc; i. e., ut in custodiam traderetur.

16. M. Ceparium. Marcus Ceparius was a native of Terracina. He fled from Rome on the discovery of the conspiracy, but was afterward arrested and executed. - Cui; Indirect object of attributam esse. - ApuLiam attributam esse; subject of erat indicatum.

17. P. Furium; Q. Annium Chilonem. In regard to these men, little is known. They were active partisans of Catiline. The former was one of the veterans of Sulla; the latter a senator. - De jis colonis, one of those colonists. See note on quas Sulla constituit, p. 136, line 19

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18. Faesulas; G. 380, II.

146
19. In hac ... sollicitatione, in this tampering with (lit., solicita-
tion of) the Allobroges. -Allobrogum; Objective Gen. G. 336, III.

20. P, Umbrenum. A freedman who had resided in Gaul.
22. Ea lenitate usus est, exercised such leniency. G. 421, I.

23. Ut; construe with arbitraretur. G.500.- Ex tanta conjura-
tione, out of so great a conspiracy; construe with novem hominum.

24. Novem hominum; i, e., of the nine conspirators just mentioned — Lentulus, Cethegus, etc. Only five were, however, actually punished, as Cassius, Furius, Chilo, and Umbrenus escaped by flight,

25. Poena, by the punishment. -Re publica conservata; Abl. Absol.

27. Supplicatio, a thanksgiving.

28. Quod mihi primum togato contigit, an honor which has been conferred upon me first in civil life, i. e., an honor which was never before conferred upon any one in civil life, but only upon generals. Quod, which, i. e., an honor which, referring to the honor of thanksgiving. — Togato, clad in the toga, i. e., in civil life as opposed to military service. See note on togato, p. 139, line 24.

30. Quod liberassem; G. 516, II. - Urbem incendiis; G. 414, I.

31. Quae supplicatio si, if this thanksgiving.

32. Hoc interest, there is this difference. G. 408, II.; 511.-
Ceterae. Supply supplicationes constitutae sunt.

- Bene gesta; sup-
ply re publica, for managing the public interests successfully, i. e.,
in war; hence, for military successes, lit., the republic having been well
managed
33. Haec una. Supply supplicatio. — Illud quod faciendum,

This does not seem to refer to any one thing in particular,
but is probably to be taken in a general sense; that which=whaterer.
The meaning is that every thing has been done legally and constitution-
ally.

2. Ut liberaremur, that we might be freed from. - Quae religio 147 C. Mario, etc., which scruple had not prevented C. Marius . . . from putting to death C. Glaucia, the praetor, etc. In general, the person of a magistrate, while in office, was inviolable. Hence Lentulus is compelled to lay down his office that he may be punished as a private citizen, Mario non fuerat quo minus, lit., had not been to Marius by which the less, i. e., had not prevented him from. - Quo minus occideret; G. 497, II., 2.

3. C. Glauciam; called C. Servilium, p. 118, line 18. The full name is C. Servilius Glaucia. See note on C. Mario, p. 118, line 16.

etc.

VII. The Signal Success already attained largely due to

the Absence of Catiline from the City.

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147 9. Opes, supports.

10. Quem, him ; object of pellebam. - Quidem ego; G. 446, note 1.-Hoc providebam animo, I foresaw this in my mind. Hoc is explained by the following infinitive clause, esse ..., pertimescendam, in apposition with it.

12. Lentuli somnum, the drowsiness of Lentulus, i. e., Lentulus with his drowsiness. — Adipes, corpulence.

13. Ille, he, i. e., Catiline.

14. Tam diu, dum, as long as, i. e., only as long as, lit., as long as, while.

15. Norat; G. 235, 2. Why in the Pluperfect? G. 297, I., 2. – Omnium aditus tenebat, he was acquainted with the means of access to all men, i. e., he knew how to approach them in such a way as to win them to his cause. - Omnium; Objective Genitive. — Tenebat; here used as a synonyme of norat, was acquainted with, held in his knowledge.

16. Appellare, tentare ... audebat. G. 554, 1., 6. - Erat ei consilium ... aptum, he had the ability capable of planning crime, lit., adapted to crime.

17. Consilio, lingua, manus; i. e., to this ability to form plans was added the ability to advocate and execute them.

18. Jam, moreover.
19. Descriptos, assigned.

20. Confectum putabat, did he consider it accomplished. Confectum agrees with id as a predicate accusative.- Quod ... occurreret, which he did not attend to, engage in. G. 503, 1. The case of quod is determined by the nearest verb obiret. Occurreret would govern the Dative. Obeo and occurro, as synonymes, differ from each other only as the simple verbs, eo and curro, differ.

23. Ego hominem. Ego is the subject of compulissem, of which hominem is the object. In construing, begin with nisi. G. 569, III., 1.Paratum, ready, i. e., prepared for every emergency.

24. In perditis rebus, in criminal enterprises.

25. In castrense latrocinium, into open robbery, lit., robbery pertaining to a camp, i. e., carried on by means of an army. Cicero speaks of Catiline's military movements not as warfare, but as robbery.

28. Non ille ... Saturnalia, etc.; i. e., he would have appointed an earlier day for the execution of his plans, and would not have made

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