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150 festive occasions of this kind, the statues of the gods were placed upon these couches as if to partake of the offerings made to them.

5. Celebratote; G. 487, 2, 1). — Illos dies; i. e., the several days of thanksgiving.

7. Habiti sunt, hare been rendered.

10. Togati, in the garb of peace. It agrees with ros, understood. Me uno... . imperatore. See p. 139, line 24.

11. Recordamini; Imperative.

13. L. Sulla, etc. The events here referred to belong to the year 88 B. C. The tribune, P. Sulpicius, proposed a law transferring the command in the Mithridatic War from Sulla to Marius; whereupon Sulla, who had not yet left Italy, marched with his legions to Rome, put Sulpicius to death, and banished Marius and others.

14. Custodem hujus urbis. Marius is so called because he saved Rome from invasion by the Cimbri and Teutones, 102 and 101 B. C.

15. Partim, partim, either, or ; i. e., he banished some and slew others. - Cu. Octavius. In the year 87 B. C., Cn. Octavius, a partisan of Sulla, drove his own colleague, Cinna, out of the city; but, before the close of the year, Cinna and Marius returned, became masters of Rome, and were elected consuls for the ensuing year.

16. Hic locus; i. e., the Forum.

19. Lumina civitatis. Among these were Cn. Octavius, the consul, M. Antonius, the orator, and Q. Lutatius Catulus, the victor in the Cimbrian War. — Ultus est ... Sulla. This was in the year 82 B. C. The bloody proscriptions of Sulla were terrible.

20. Dici opus est; G. 414, note 4, 2).

21. Quanta deminutione. One writer says upwards of 70,000 citizens were put to death. - Deminutione and calamitate limit ultus sit, to be supplied.

22. M. Lepidus. Marcus Lepidus, consul 78 B. C., attempted to rescind Sulla's laws, but was opposed by his colleague, Quintus Catulus. He was compelled to flee, and died in exile. He was not, however, rery much lamented. As Cicero says: Attulit non tam ipsius interitus rei publicae luctum quam ceterorum."

23. Ipsius; i. e., of Lepidus. - Rei publicae; Dative.

25. Atque tamen, and yet ; i. e., though they aimed merely to change the constitution, yet.

27. IUI, they ; i. e., the leaders in these dissensions.
28. Hanc urbem. Subject of conflagrare.
29. Reconciliatione, by the restoration,

31. Uno maximo, without exception the greatest, lit., alone the greatest.

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33. Sua gente, with its own race, i. e., with barbarians.- Haec 150
lex. Explained by ut omnes qui ... ducerentur. — Lentulo, Cethego,
Cassio. See notes on P. Lentulo, p. 142, line 20; C. Cethegus, p. 143,
line 15; and L. Cassio, p. 144, line 7.

34. Salva urbe; Abl. Absol.
36. Quum, though.

1. Tantum civium, as many citizens, i. e., only as many, lit., as 151
much of citizens. Civium, Partitive Genitive.- Quantum restitisset,
as should have roithstood. The Future Perfect would have been uscd in
the Direct Discourse.

2. Tantum. Supply superfuturum esse.

3. Integros incolumesque, untouched (whole) and unharmed. See Syu. L. C. 321,

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XI. Cicero asks no other Reward than the Grateful

Recollection, on the Part of the People, of his Consul-
ship.
5. Rebus, services.

8. In animis vestris; construe with condi et collocari. Why at the beginning of the sentence? G. 561, I.

10. Nihil mutum, nothing mute, i, en, no dumb and lifeless memorial or statue.

11. Quod possint; G. 503, I.

12. Minus digni, the less worthy. G. 441, 1. - Memoria vestra, in your memory, lit., by means of, etc.; Abl. of Means. - Res nostrae alentur, my (lit., our) deeds will be kept alive.

13. Litterarum. See Lat. Comp. 440, 2.

14. Eandemque diem intelligo propagatam, etc., I feel assured that the same duration has been granted both to, etc. ; i. e., as long as the state endures, so long will the recollection of my consulship be cherished.

18. Alter, alter, the one, the other ; the former referring to Pompey, who had just won such glory in the Mithridatic War; the latter, to Cicero, who had just crushed this terrible conspiracy against the life of the state. --Non terrae ... . regionibus, by the boundaries not of the earth, but of the hearens ; an exaggeration somewhat extravagant.

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Conclusion.

21. Earum rerum ... fortuna, quae illorum; G. 562.
22. Eadem, quae, the same, as. G. 451, 5.- Est; G. 463, 3.

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151 Illorum, that of those. Norum depends upon fortuna and condicio understood. G. 398, 1, note 1.

25. Vestrum est, it is your duty. G. 401, note 3. – The subject of est is proridere.

26. Mea; i.e., facti mea. Subject of obsint. - Ne obsint; G. 498, 11. – Mentes, designs. Subject of possent.

28. Ne mihi noceant ... providere. This the Roman people failed to do. Accordingly, five years afterward, Cicero was compelled to go into exile in consequence of his treatment of the conspirators. – Vestrum. Predicate Adjective agreeing with the subject proridere.

29. Mihi ipsi nihil noceri potest, I myself cannot be injured at all. G. 301, 1. Nihil; Accus. of Specification.

82. Dignitas, authority.

33. Quam qui negligunt, and those who disregard this, lit., which who disregard. G. 453, 3. The antecedent of quam is vis, that of qui is omitted. G. 445, 6.

35. Nobis; G. 446, note 2.

36. Nullius; G. 457, 2. 152 2. Converterit; Fut. Perf. - Vobis; G. p. 203, foot-note 1.

5. Quod possit; G. 503, I. - Ad vitae fructum, as the reward of life, lit., to or for the, etc. Fructum here does not mean enjoyment, but that which is produced, the fruit, reward, result.

6. In honore vestro, among the honors in your gift, lit., in your honor, i.e., honor conferred by you. Vestro is equivalent to the Subjective Genitive. G. 396, II., note. Cicero had already attained the very highest of all these honors, the consulship. He had reached the summit of a Roman's ambition.

8. Illud. Explained by ut ea quae gessi . . . ornem.

9. Ut tuear atque ornem, to maintain and adorn. Cicero means that in future life it will be his aim to maintain and illustrate the very principles which have controlled his conduct during his consulsbip.

10. Conservanda re publica, in preserving the republic, lit., by, etc.; Abl. of Means.

11. Mihi valeat ad gloriam, may redound to my glory, lit., may avail to me for glory.

12. Meminerim. Explain Mood and Tense. G. 500; 297, 1., 2.

13. Gesserim. Subjunctive in an Indirect Clause. - Ea. Subject of videantur.

15. Jovem illum. See note on ille, ille Juppiter, p. 149, line 24.

18. Aeque ac priore nocte, in the same manner as last night. G. 554, I., 2, note.

19. Id, this; explained by ea custodiis vigiliisque defendite.

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FOURTH ORATION AGAINST CATILINE, DELIVERED IN THE SEN

ATE, IN THE TEMPLE OF CONCORD, ON THE FIFTH OF DECEM-
BER, 63 B. C.*

ANALYSIS.

I. INTRODUCTION. I., II.

II, STATEMENT OF THE CASE. TWO DIFFERENT MEASURES PROPOSED
FOR THE DISPOSITION OF THE PRISONERS. III., IV.

III. THE RELATIVE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THESE TWO
MEASURES. V. - VIII.

IV. THE DUTY OF THE SENATE TO THE STATE AND TO THE COXSUL.
IX., X.

V. CONCLUSIOX. XI.

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PACE

I., II. Introduction, Cicero than

Cicero thanks the Senate for their kind Solicitude in his Behalf, but begs them to consult only the Public Welfare.

1. In me... conversos. The cyes of all are turned to the consul, 153 not only in anxious expectation of the part he is to take in this important debate, but also in deep solicitude for his personal safety.

2. Vestro. With vestro and rei publicae, supply periculo from line 4.

3. Si id depulsum sit, if that (your danger) should be warded off, i. e., by the execution of the conspirators now in custody.

4. Jucunda, grata. See Syn. L. C. 216.

5. Voluntas, kind solicitude, not merely good-will, as the word generally means, since in that sense Cicero would scarcely say eam deponite.

6. Salutis; G. 406, II.

7. Vestris, yours; i. e., your families. G. 441, 1.- Mihi si ... data est, if the consulship was given me on this condition, lit., if this condition of the consulship, etc.

10. Dum modo ... parlatur; G. 513, I.

12. Cui non forum. Observe that the predicate unquam vacua (vacuum) mortis periculo atque insidiis, is expressed only with the last of the several subjects. See note on in foro, p. 129, line 10.

13. In quo ... continetur. The Forum was the place where justice was administered. - Campus; i, e., the Campus Martius, in which the consular elections were held. - Consularibus auspiciis, by

* See Introduction, p. 309.

NOTES. PAGE 153 the consular auspices, i. e., by the auspices which were always taken on the occasion of an election.

14. Summum auxilium, the highest refuge; because in the senatehouse were heard the causes of all nations in alliance with Rome.

16. Haec sedes honoris; i. e., the curule chair, the official chair of the consul.

17. Periculo; G. 414, III.

18. Multa tacui. Cicero had ascertained many facts in regard to the conspiracy, perhaps implicating prominent citizens, which he had not deemed it wise to make public. – Multa ... dolore sanavi, I have remedied many things with some pain to myself. Meo, to myself, lit., my. G, 398, 3.

20. Ut... eriperem. In apposition with exitum. G. 501, III. — Vos, Object of eriperem. 154

1. Virginesque Vestales. See note on post virginum absolutionem, p. 144, line 15.

5. Subeatur, let it be endured ; Subj. of Desire. The subject is ea, understood, referring to fortuna. - Suum nomen; i. e., Cornelius. See note on ex fatis Sibyllinis, p. 144, line 10.

6. Vatibus; i.e., haruspicibus. See p. 144, lines 9 to 12: Lentulum ... ex fatis Sibyllinis haruspicumque responsis, se esse . . . necesse.

7. Laeter; Potential Subj. - Ad salutem prope fatalem, appointed by fate to secure the safety, lit., to the safety. Fatalem is bere used out of its ordinary signification as shown in fatale ad perniciem, fated carrying with it the idea of doom, destruction ; in using it here in a good sense, Cicero therefore qualifies it by the addition of prope, showing that he does not take the full meaning of the word, but only as much of it as the context requires, viz., appointed by fate.

9. Vobis; G. 385, II., 1.

11. Mihi parcere desinite. Cicero begs the senate not to be den terred from adopting vigorous measures by any fear of the consequences to himself.

13. Pro eo ac mereor, in proportion as I deserve, lit., in proportion to that (pro eo), viz., as I deserve (ac mereor).

14. Relaturos esse gratiam, will recompense. See Syn. L. C.548, 3. -- Obtigerit. Cicero uses this word in preference to acciderit, to imply that danger and death have no terrors for him.

15. Aequo animo paratoque, with equanimity and readiness, lit., with an even and prepared mind. G. 564, II. – Neque turpis mors forti viro, etc. Because to die bravely was, in the opinion of the-Romans, an honor.

16. Neque immatura consulari. Because he who had attained

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