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mum abiit, quod fallaci reditu in castra jurejurando se exsolvisset. Quod ubi innotuit relatumque ad senatum est, omnes censuerunt comprehendendum et custodibus

publice datis deducendum ad Hannibalem esse. 5 Est et alia de captivis fama: decem primos venisse :

de eis cum dubitatum in senatu esset, admitterentur in urbem necne, ita admissos esse, ne tamen iis , senatus daretur: morantibus deinde longius omnium spe, alios

tres insuper legatos venisse, L. Scribonium et C. Calpur. 10 nium et L. Manlium : tum demum ab cognato Scribonii

tribuno plebis de redimendis captivis relatum esse, nec censuisse redimendos senatum, et novos legatos tres ad Hannibalem revertisse, decem veteres remansisse ; quod,

per causam recognoscendi nomina captivorum ad Hanni15 balem ex itinere regressi, religione sese exsolvissent. De

iis dedendis magna contentione actum in senatu esse, victosque paucis sententiis, qui dedendos censuerint: ceterum proximis censoribus adeo omnibus notis ignominiis

que confectos esse, ut quidam eorum mortem sibi ipsi 20 extemplo consciverint, ceteri non foro solum omni deinde

vita, sed prope luce ac publico, caruerint. Mirari magis, adeo discrepare inter auctores, quam quid veri sit discer. nere queas.

Quanto autem major ea clades superioribus cladibus 25 fuerit, vel ea res indicio est, quod fides sociorum, quæ ad

eum diem firma steterat, tum labare cæpit, nulla profecto alia de re quam quod desperaverant de imperio. Defecere autem ad Pænos hi populi, Atellani, Calatini, Hirpini,

A pulorum pars, Samnites præter Pentros, Bruttii omnes, 30 Lucani : præter hos Surrentini et Græcorum omnis ferme

ora, Tarentini, Metapontini, Crotonienses, Locrique, et Cisalpini omnes Galli. Nec tamen eæ clades defectionesque sociorum moverunt, ut pacis unquam mentio apud

Romanos fieret, neque ante consulis Romam adventum, 35 nec postquam is rediit renovavitque memoriam acceptæ

cladis. Quo in tempore ipso adeo magno animo civitas fuit, ut consuli ex tanta clade, cujus ipse causa maxima fuisset, redeunti, et obviam itum frequenter ab omnibus

ordinibus sit, et gratiæ actæ quod de re publica non despe. 10 rasset : qui si Carthaginiensium ductor fuisset, nihil recue

sandum supplicii foret.


A and s. stands for the Latin Grammar of Andrews and Stoddard. z.

" " Zumpt's Latin Grammar, translated by Dr.

Schmitz; reprinted in this country, under the

care of Prof. Anthon of New York. Arn. Pr. Intr.

T. K. Arnold's Practical Introduction to Latin

Prose Composition. Amer. edit., D. Appleton

& Co.; edited by Rev. J. A. Spencer. D.

" Döderlein's Handbook of Latin Synonymes.

When the vo u ne 's mentioned, reference is made to the original German work, in six vol


Dict. Antiqq. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, ed

ited by William Smith, LL.D. Amer. edition,

revised by Prof. Anthon. Hand, Turs. « Ferdinand Hand's Tursellinus, seu do Particulis

Latinis Commentarii. Krebs

• Krebs' Guide for writing Latin. Historical references are made to the following works :

Niebuhr's Hist. of Rome, (Eng. ed.) translated by Hare and Thirlwall. Arnold's History of Romo American edition, D. Appleton & Co. Schmitz's History of Rome Andover edition.

The following works are also referred to :-Freund's Wörterbuch dor Lateinischen Sprache, Madvig's Lateinische Sprachlehre, Bocker's Handbuch der Römischen Alterthümer, Hartung's Religion der Römer, Gry. sar's Theorie des Lateinischen Stiles; and occasionally Becker's Gallus, translatod by Metcalfe, and the Classical Museum, published in London.


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1. Facturusne operæ pretium sim. Operæ pretium, literally, 1 the roward of one's pains, a thing worth the while = opus utile, a useful work. Facturus sim is the subj. of the future, (see A. an' S. $ 260, Rem. 7, (2) Z. & 497,) forming with the enclitic ne an indirect question, [800 A. and S. & 265; Z. $ 552.) These first four words form the first four feet of an hexameter verse. So Tacitus begins his Annals with an entire hexameter, Urbem Romam a principio reges habuero. Such instances of poetic numbers in prose Cicero censures in Orator, c. 54; and in every language they are to be avoided. Accordingly, critics and editors have preferred to road facturusne sim opere pretium; but the remark of Quintilian, (Inst. 9, 4,) is conclusive on this point: T. Livius hexametri exordio cæpit, “ facturusne operæ pretium sim;" nam ita edidit estque melius quam quomodo emendatur. Est operæ pretium, as we learu from the Scholiast on Horace, Sat. 1, 2, 37, was a favorite expression of the poet Ennius; and as we knop that Livy, in his history of the kings, followed the Annales of Ennius, a fact which is quite obvious from the general poetic character of the style, as well as from particular forms and expressions, and even fragments of verse, borrowed directly from that poet, it seems not improbable that this epic opening of Livy's preface was either imitated or borrowed from the same source. Compare Niebuhr's Hist. Rome, vol i.

p. 219.

2. Si sciam, “ if I know.” In hypothetical sentences, we must thus frequently render the subj. pres., in a conditional clause, by an English past tense.—Ausim, see A. and S. g.162, 9; Z. $ 161, and $ 181,

3. Quippe qui-videam, " for I am aware.” Quippe—also utpote, utqui means inasmuch as I, he, they, &c., i. e. " for," "because." Sometimes the English expression “ as being” gives tho force of this construction. For the subj. see A. and S. 9 264, 8; Z. $ 565; Arn. Pr. Intr. P. I. 482.

8. Pro virili parte. Pars or portio virilis means, in a legal bonso, a portion of an inheritanco that falls to a man, i. e. to each ono of the heirs. Hence the expression comes to mean a part, a share, a duty; and pro virili parte, for my part, what belongs to me. Render, “ that I also have borne my part, &c.”—Folsom.


1 11. Ut quæ-repetatur. For the subj. see n. above, on quippe qui-videam.

14. Legentium plerisque. Plerique is here partitive, in tho sense of the greater number, the majority. Otherwise it means great many," "very many." See 2. $ 109, Note.

22. Ante conditam condendamve urbem, i. e. antoquam urbs aut condita esset, aut conderetur, (Lachmann, Propert. 4, 12, 62,) “ before the city was built, or the design of building it was formed.” The part. here, as frequently, supplies the place of the part. pres. pass., i. e. of a continued passive state. Seo Z. 9 652.

23. Poeticis magis decora fabulis. This remark clearly reveals Livy's own view of the poetic character of the early Roman history. The early books of his work furnish a perpetual commentary upon this remark.

“ Livy wrote in the same spirit, in which the marvellous legends of the heroic age were commonly drawn down into history. Those primitive times, in which the gods walk among mankind, he would not absolutely reject; whatever was recorded of the more recent, so that it was not inconsistent with the earthly condition of our race, he only held to be less complete and certain, but of the same kind with the traditions of accredited history.”—Niebuhr's Hist. vol. i. p. 3.

4. Cum-Martem potissimum ferat. Potius and potissimum imply choice and preference; potius, this thing rather than some other; potissimum, this rather than any other. Ferre hero means to report, hold, consider. “Since they (populus) prefer to consider Mars above all others,” &c.

9. Ad illa mihi. Mihi is an instance of what is called by gram. marians the dativus ethicus. Seo A. and S. § 228, Noto; Z. $ 408. To a Roman it was no expletive, though in translation it may seem so to us. It gives to the discourse the force of a lively personal interest. • Let every one, if he will listen to me,” &c.; or, To these things then I earnestly desire that every one,” &c.

10. Per quos viros, quibusque artibus. Per with the acc. is used, when a man is the instrument or the means by which any thing is done. There is, however, a difference between per- when used of things, and the ablative. See Z. $ 301, and § 455.

19. Quod imitere, capias :—quod vites. The subj. capias is usod, because the second person denotes an indefinite subject, “one,"

a man," &c.-Madvig's Lat. Sprachl. § 370. For the subj. in imitere-vites, see A. and S. 9264, 5; Z. 9 567.

22. Nec in quam civitatem, etc. = nec ulla (nulla) civitas, in quam, etc. For the subj. in immigraverint-fuerit, see A. and S. 264, 7; Z. $ 561.

25. Adeo, quanto, etc. Fround cites this passage to illustrato the force of adeo in transition from one thought to another more im.

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