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Page 373, 33, ut demtum-adjiceret ; 7, 8, diu non pırlıtar:m; 21, 54, ad destinatum; 27, 37, nuntiatum; b. 45, auditum.

42. Divendita-refecisset. The reading of this disputed passaga I give according to Alschefski. Divendita is found in two of the best MSS. Alschefski compares Livy 30, 57, and Tac. Ann. 6, 17. Quadraginta occurs in Alschefski's two MSS. Ausique, which occurs in many MSS., is wanting in the three best ones. Refecisset has less authority, as it occurs only in the Medicean MS. Alschefski

compares 35, 1, refectum. 39 Ch. LVI.—. Operis, laborers,” for operariis. See Lexicon, opera, at the end.

9. Foros. Seo n. c. 35, on spectacula.

« Cloacamque maximam. The construction of this great sewer is commonly ascribed to Tarquinius Priscus, and was certainly commenced by him. See Livy, c. 38. It is still visible at Rome, a massive monument of the greatness of Rome in the regal period. It was formed of three tiers of arches, one within the other, the innermost of which is a semicircular vault, of eighteen Roman palms, about fourteen feet in diameter. The arches are formed of immense blocks, more than five feet in length, and nearly three in thickness. See Dict. Antiqq.; Arn. Hist. 1, p. 47; Schmitz, Hist. p. 39.

23. Responsa sortium, i. e. the responses of the oracle, given by means of the sortes or lots. See Dict. Antiqq., Sortes, and below, n. on sortes, B. 21, c. 62.

34. Bruti-cognomen. The word Brutus means dull, or stupid. As a cognomen Dr. Arnold translates “ the Dullard.”—Hist. 1, p. 74

See below, c. 59, n. on ad Tribunum. 39 3, 4. Cum-redissent-daret. On tho pluperf. and imperf., in

dependence upon the present permittunt, see n. on fecissent, above,

c. 25.

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Ch. LVII.-10. Ardeam Rutuli habebant, “ Ardea belonged to the Rutulians.”

10. Ut in ea regione, etc. Ut may be translated “for," " for that region, &c.” The construction is elliptical, and may be explained by supplying after ut, o. g., the words fieri poterat, as was possible. Compare Livy, 2, 50, ex opulentissima, ut tum res erant, Etrusca civitate. Also 10, 46, in insigni, ut illorum temporum habitus, erat triumpho; and many other passages. So also, Cic. Brutus 10, 39, hi, ut populi Romani ætas est, sones. Theso passages sufficiently explain the ellipsis in the present passage, and also in Livy 21, 34; 30, 33; and Cic. de Orat. 3, 18; Do Senectute, 4, 12; Brut. 10, 41; and all sirailar passages.

26. Negat verbis—esse, paucis-sciri. Negat = dicit non, 6 said that there was no need, &c., that it could be, &c."

27. Quin-conscendimus. See note on c. 45, quin perfunderis

Pago 27. Ubi Lucretiam—inveniunt. This poetic description of 39 Lucretia well illustrates the domestic manners of Grecian and Roman women, and reminds us of many a pleasant picture of home lifo in the pages of Homer and of Virgil. In the houses of even the rich and high-born, the articles of clothing were wrought by the hands of the women of the household, the mistress and her daughters, assisted by the female slaves. Thus, in a fine comparison in the Iliad, 12, 433, we see a poor woman toiling for her children ; and Iliad, 6, 490, Odyssey, 5, 59, Od. 10, 221, we find Andromache, Calypso, and Circe engaged in similar occupations. So too in Virgil, Æneid 7, 14; 8,608, and in Georg. 1, 293. See Diet. Antiqq., Tela.

36. In medio ædium, i. e. in the Atrium. Tho Atrium was the first as well as the largest saloon in a Roman house, and was the sitting-room of the family. Here stood the looms, telæ ex vetere more in atrio texebantur-Asconius, ad Cic. pro Milone, c. 5. See Becker's Gallus, pp. 191-97, and Dict. Antiqq., Roman House.

Ch. LVIII.-23. Satin’ salve; sc. agis, literally, are you quite 40 well? Is all well ?Satin' is an abbreviation for satisne, and salve is an adverb. Alschefski has satin' salve, on the authority of the Paris and the Medicean MSS. The Latinity of this expression has been disputed, especially by Gronovius and Duker. Krebs, in his Antibarbarus, p. 702, says it is doubtful, but refers to the Lexicons. Freund, in his Lexicon, explains the expression as above, citing this passage, and also Livy, 40, 8; also Plautus, Stich. 1, 1, 10; Trin. 5, 2, 53.

38. Conclamat vir paterque. It was usual with the Romans, after the eyes of a deceased person had been closed, for the friends present to cry out with a loud voice, and call upon the departed by name, for the purpose of recalling him to life, if he should be only in a trance. The word that expresses this custom is conclamare. Thus too in Livy, 4, 40,-ex mestis paulo ante domibus quæ conclamaverant suos. Other passages, Quintil. Declam. 8, 10; Amm. Marcell. 30, 10; Ovid, Trist. 3, 3, 43; Lucan. 2, 23. Hence the formula applied to any occurrence in life, when no more hope remained, conclamatum est, it is all over. See Becker's Gallus, (Transl.) pp. 401, 2; Fround's. Lexicon.

CA. LIX.-40. Manantem cruore. Alschefski compares Livy 40, 39, manantia cruore spolia, in favor of manantem rather than manante. In this passage Livy does not seem to hold to the distinction usually observed between sanguis and cruor. Sanguis is the blood circulating in the body, cruor the blood gushing from the body, the blood that is shed. Sanguis is the condition of physical life, cruor the symbol of death by slaughter.—D.

1. Exsecuturum means here to follow with enmity, to take ven- 41 geance upon. So Freund, who cites this passage, and at the same time remarks that the word occurs nowhere else in this sonse, with an

Page 41 accusative of a person. Alschefski says that exsecuturum in this

passage embraces in itself the meaning both of persecuturum and of exacturum.

11. Quod viros, quod Romanos deceret. The subjunctive is used here, in accordance with a grammatical principle already fro. quently illustrated, because the words are ascribed to Brutus. “Which, as he said, became them as men, as Romans.” A. and S. § 266, 3; 2. & 549.

14. Pari præsidio, “a sufficient garrison.” Par" significat præsidium quantum et tempus et locus postulabant.”—Alschefski.

23. Ad tribunum Celerum. For an account of the Celores, see note above on c. 15. The Tribunus Celerum was the commander of the Celeres, " and was to the king what the master of the horse was afterwards to the dictator.” It is hardly necessary to point out the extravagance in representing Brutus, though a reputed idiot, yet invested with such an important office. Festus says that Brutus in old Latin was synonymous with Gravis; this would show a connection between the word and the Greek Bapós. It is very possible that its early signification as a cognomen may have differed very little from that of Severus. When the signification of " dulness” came to be more confirmed, the story of Brutus's pretended idiocy would be invented to explain the fact of so wise a man being called by such a name. Am. Hist. 1, p. 77, n. 10.

29. Esset. For the subjunctire, see above, note on deceret.


Pago CH. I.-5. Ita regnarunt, ut-numerentur, “ reigned in such 44 a manner, that they may be considered.” Regnârunt is the perf. indefinite, and yet is followed by the present subj. The reason sooms to be, that the writer from his own point of view, as a narrator, simply expresses the idea of the reigning of the kings as something past. See A. and S. 9 258, II.; Z. $ 512, Note.

9. Pessimo publico, maximo reipublicæ damno, “ with the groatest injury to the state." In like manner malum publicum, Liv. 4, 44, ut in parcendo uni malum publicum fiat, and bonum publicum, Liv. 2, 44; 9, 38; 28, 41. So commune magnum, Hor. Odes, 2, 15, 14.

10. Facturus fuerit, “would have done." The perfect in the periphrastic conjugation, both indicative and subjunctive, has in hy. pothetical sentences the force of the pluperfect. See Z. $ 498.

11. Quid enim futurum fuit, “ for what would have been the result.” Futurum fuit = accidisset. See preceding note.

13. Templi. This refers to the Asylum of Romulus. See B. 1,

C. 8

22. Quia-factum est, quam quod-diminutum sit. Quia and quod both denoto a cause ; but Livy in using quia with the indicative factum est, gives a cause which he himself holds to be the true one; and in using quod with the subjunctive diminutum sit, a cause which is alleged by some one else, or a merely supposed cause. We must ascribe, he says, the origin of liberty to the fact of the consular government being made an annual one, rather than to the alleged circumstance of any falling off from the power which the kings had possessed.

12. Traditumque-essent, “and from this circumstance is said 45 to have been handed down the custom of summoning to the senate, the Patres and the Conscripti.” Livy thus explains the customary form of addressing the senate, Patres Conscripti. It was originally Patres et Conscripti, i. e. the original patrician senators, and the new senators chosen, according to Livy, by Brutus. These now senators were probably plebeians of equestrian rank. See Dict. Antiqq., Senatus.

Ch. II.-18. Regem sacrificulum. Under the regal governmont, the king was, by virtue of his office, high-priost of the nation,

Page 45 and performed in person some of the sucra publica. Under tho repub.

lican government now established, a rez sacrificulus, otherwise callea rex sacrorum, was appointed to discharge those priestly duties which formerly devolved upon the king. But lest the title rex-additus nomini honos-should be in any way injurious to the interests of liberty, the new office was made subordinate to that of the pontifex maximus See Dict. Antiqq.

21. Nescio, an. This expression, denoting uncertainty, and thus joined with the subjunctive, yet expresses an opinion leaning to an affirmative It is the samo as fortasse or videtur mihi. See A. and S § 265, R. 3; Z. 98 354, 721.

22. Consulis alterius, i. e. L. Tarquinius Collatinus.

37. Dicturum fuisse. See note um futurum fuisse, B. 1, c. 46. 46 13. Ex senatus_consulto. See note on ex fædere, B. 1, c. 23.

15. Comitiis centuriatis. This ablative, which frequently occurs in Livy, falls under the rule for the abl. of time. So lzdis, gla. diatoribus, tumultu, and others. See Z. $ 475, Note. For an account of the Comitia Centuriata, see Dict. Antiqq. On the meaning of the word creavit, see note below on B. 21, c. 15, creatus ab T. Sempronio.

CH. III.-18. Spe-serius. See A. and S. § 256, R. 9; Z $ 484.

21. Nec hi-orti, " and these too, of no mean descent." See Aru. Pr. Intr. 385; Z. $ 699.

31. Periculosum-vivere, “ that it was a perilous thing, in the midst of so many errors to which men are liable, to rely solely upon one's innocence." The fine tone of irony running through this whole passage well illustrates the condition and sentiments of a corrupt nobility, suddenly forced to exchange the license of a bad monarchy for the strictness and equality of a republic.

36. Tenuit, continued.” So Freund, who also cites this passage Other passages, in which teneo has the same sense, ar, 23, 44; 24

47; 33, 22. 47 CH. IV.-11. Nam aliter qui-afferri. These words give the

ground on which the legati urged the conspirators to give them letters to the Tarquinii. They wished the letters as credentials, “sor how otherwise,” (said they,) “would they believe," &c.

14. Et cenatum, “ Copula et impeditam facit orationem, quæ ea sublata melius procedit.”—Duker. Yet the et is established by the MSS.

C1. V.–29. Contacta, nom. case, agreeing with plebs understood. “that the commons having shared in.” Comp. below c. 6, bona sua diripienda-expers esset.

30. Ager Tarquiniorum, etc. According to Livy here, this land was, after the expulsion of the Tarquins, consecrated to Mars,

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