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subsistence, generally grain; 3, the price of grain, and of othe articles of food ; 4, in military language, stock of provisions. (Freund.)

11. Tertio anno = tertio ante anno, i. e. two years ago."

14. Haud tam facile, etc. Faciendumno fuerit = utrum fieri debuerit, “ whether it should have been done." " Whether such a measure ought to have been put into execution it is not so easy to say ; but I think that it was a possible thing for the patricians, by lowering the price of the corn, to have freed themselves not only from the tribunician power, but also from all those laws which had been put upon them against their will."

Ch. XXXV.-25. Diem dixissent; dicere diem means to appoint a day for trial.

31. Ut unius pæna-patribus," that the patricians were obliged to make a sacrifice of one of their number.”

33. Dispositis-clientibus. It was very common with the patricians, when they wished to defeat any plebeian measure, to come in great numbers with their clients to the forum, where the comitia were held, and by purposely exciting a disturbance, to interrupt and hindei

the progress of business. 56 2. Ita-stimularet, “ thus a hatred of long standing stimulating

the one, and a fresh feeling of anger the other.” Vetus, old, that which has long existed ; recens, recent, that which has lately begun to exist.-D.

Ch. XXXVI.-8. Ludi forte, etc., “it happened that preparations wero making at Rome for a repetition of the great games.” Soo note on Ludi, B. 1, c. 35.

10. Ludis. For the construction, see note on comitiis, B. 2, c. 2.
11. Sub furca. See note on this word, B. 1, c. 26.
13. Haud ita multo post. Seo n. on this expression, B. 1, c. 33.

21. Ægro animi, etc. For the construction of animi, see Z. $ 437, N. 1. Species, “vision.”

22. Satin', compounded of satis and the enclitic ne. See n. B. 1,

C. 58.

CH. XXXVII.-42. Invitus, etc. Quod sequius sit = quod minus laudi sit. “I am unwilling to say any thing to the discredit of my countrymen.” Sequirls, also written secius, is the comparative of

See Z. 283. 44. Nimio plus, literally more by too much, i e. far too much“ fickle, to a degree far greater than I could wish.” For tho con. Page lates, “ to che well-head of the water of Ferentina.” (Hist. vol. 1, 128.) 57 Ferentinum was a town in Latium, southeast of Rome, belonging to the lernici, but originally a Volscian town.--(Cramer's Italy, vol. 2, p. 80.) In Livy, B. 1, c. 50, occurs the expression, ad caput aqua Ferentine, substantially the same as in the present passage, meaning the source of a stream near Ferentinum. Ferentina also occurs as the name of a deity worshipped near the town, as in Livy, 1, 50, lucus Ferentine. Freund gives as the meaning of caput Ferentinum, “probably tbs town of Ferentinum."


struction of nimio see note on uno, B. 2, c. 7. 57 10. Ne cujus, etc., “that I may not, by being present, be exposed to injury, from supposed participation in any word or action."

14. Urbem excederent. For the accusative, see Z. $ 386, Note; A. and S. § 233, Rem. 1.

CH. XXXVIII.-21. Ad caput Ferentinum. Dr. Arnold trans

23. Secunda iræ verba, “ words that favored their resentment: I ræ is in the dative case.

24. Multitudinem aliam, " the rest of the cultitude.” Alia for reliqua, as frequently in Livy, e. g. 1, 57, aliam superbiam; 5, 40, alia turba; 3, 50, alia violentia ; 21, 27, alius exercitus. Alius means other-reliquus, the remaining, all that remains of a determinate number. So alii means others, some others; ceteri, the others, all the others; reliqui, all the remaining, the rest.-Grotefend.

25. Veteres-injurias cladesque, etc. Injurias and clades are in the same construction as omnia. Though you forget tho former injuries you have received from the Roman people, and the calamities, &c., though you forget all other things.” Alschefski remarks, that the conjunction is often removed from the beginning of the sentence, especially when some particular thought is to be expressed with emphasis.

29. An non sensistis, etc. Or, did you not perceive," &c. It must be noticed that an is not used as the sign of a simple question, either direct or indirect. It either follows an interrogation, or is so closely connected with the sentence that goes before, that a preceding interrogation is supposed, and may be easily supplied. The only exception to this remark is in the use of an, meaning whether not, after haud scio, nescio, and similar expressions denoting uncertainty; and even these expressions seem to suppose a previous alternative. See Z. 98 353, 354; Arn. Pr. Intr. 120.

CH. XXXIX.-11. Bovillas. The conjectural reading of Gro-58 novius, which Alschefski adopts, except that he writes the name Bovellas. Novella, new, lately acquired, is the common reading, on the ground that their capture is mentioned in this book, c. 33. Novellam is the reading of the MSS.

12. Corbionem, Vitelliam, etc. Of the towns mentioned here, und in the preceding sentences, Circeii, Satricum, Corioli, Lavinium, Corbio, Lavici, and Pedum, were, in the year of Rome 261, Latin cities, and were among the thirty Latin cities, which in that year concluded the league with Rome. The rapid succession in which these towns are represented as yielding one after another to the victorious wms of Coriolanus, well accords with the style and while character of

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Page 58 this celebrated story. But it is the opinion of Niebuhr and of Arnold,

that these conquests were not effected at once, but in the course of several years. See Amold's Hist. Rome, vol. 1, c. 11.

14. Ad fossas Cluilias. See B. 1, c. 23. Also in same chapter, see note on ducit.

22. Id-conveniebat, “this alone was a point of disagreement." 29. Referre de—mittendis, “propose the sending of deputies.” 32. Oratores, legati above, deputies.

CH. XL.–40. Matronæ matrem. It will be observed that is this chapter occur nearly all the Latin words applying to woman Mater, matrona, between which is the same difference as in English, mother, matron; mulier, woman in opp. to vir ; exor and conjux, wife, in opp. to maritus, uzor in relation to the man, wife; conjux from conjungere, in mutual relation to the husband, spouse, consort -D.

40. Veturiam-matrem, Volumniamque uxorem. Plutarch ca'ls the mother of Coriolanus, Volumnia, and his wife, Virgilia. The

same names are used by Shakspeare, and also hy Dr. Arnold. 59 12. Ab sede—complexum, sc. prosiliens or se proripiens. Ferre

complexum obviam ire amplexurum, go to meet with the intention of embracing. Render, “ as he leaped from his seat and hastened to meet and embraco his mother, as she advanced.”

13. Sine-sciam, “ let me know"_"whether I have come to an enemy or a son”_" whether I am in your camp a prisoner or a mother ?” In this address the historian has admirably conceived and described the feelings and circumstances of Veturia. Che language which she utters, breathes at once all the tenderness of a mother, and all the dignity of a Roman matron.

18. Non tibi, etc., " although you had reached the Roman borders with revengeful and hostile feelings, did not your anger subside as you entered them?” i. e. you might have indulged in feelings of hostility through the whole progress of your march, but at the moment that you first touched the Roman soil, did not your angry feelings subside ?

23. Sed ego nihil, etc. Nec-nec must be connected with nihil, the second nec meaning nor in the sense of and yet not, nor yet. “ But I can suffer nothing, which will not bring more disgrace upon you than misery upon me; and yet, wretched as my lot may be, I am not to endure it long.” Veturia wishes to dissuade her son from persisting in his plans against the city; and also to remind him, that even if he did persist in so disgraceful a course, she herself would not long survive the ruin of the city.

25. De his videris. Videris is fut. perf. in the sense of the simple future. (Seo Z. $ 511 ; Cf. Madvig's Lat. Sprachl. 340, A. 4.) Literally, you will see to these, i. e. his wife and children.

" Look to thy wife and children.”

Page 31. Invidia-leto. Both Plutarch and Dionysius relate that he 59 was put to death by the Volscians. Dionysius says that he was stoned to death.

32. Apud Fabium, etc. So in B. 1, 44, scriptorum antiquissimus, Fabius Pictor. Also B. 22, 7, Fabium æqualem temporibus hujusce belli potissimum auctorem.

35. Non inviderunt, etc. Laude sua from Alschefski, according to the best MSS. Invidere is used in the sense of privare—" did not deprive the women of their deserved honor.” See Z. $ 413.

I have been unwilling to interrupt the progress of this five story by mentioning either the speculations or the well-founded opinions entertained by Niebuhr and Arnold in regard to its historical character. It is sufficient to notice in conclusion the remark of Dr. Arnold, that “the story must be referred to a period much later than the year 263, the date assigned to it in the common annals; and the circumstancos are so disguised, that it is impossible to guess from what reality they have been corrupted ”-Hist Rome, vol. 1, n 125.


The chapters of the Third Book embraced in the prosent edition, con. tain the tragical story of Virginia. Macaulay, in his lay of Virginia, has admirably used the poetic features of this story, and has furnished indeed a graphic, living picture of the social and political life of this period of Roman history. The name of Appius Claudius the decemvir was scarcely less detestable than that of Sextus Tarquinius. He had inherited all the haughty pride of his ancestors, and all their inflexible spirit of opposition to the interests of the Roman commons. The character and bearing of himself and his race are described with surpassing force and truth in the opening lines of Macaulay's poem.

At the opening of the story, the second year of the decemvirate had already passed by; but Appius and his associates still retained their office, and ruled with a tyrannic sway. Their government had been marked with all the abuse and license of the worst of the ancient aristocracies, and the people were constantly on the eve of resistance and revolution. This last act of tyranny attempted by Appius was a "signal for a general explosion. Camp and city rose at once; the Ten were pulled down; the Tribuneship was re-established ; and Appius escaped the hands of the executioner only by a voluntary death."

Cf. Arn. Hist. 1, ch. xv.; Schmitz's Hist. ch. viii. 61 Ch. XLIV.—7. Honestum—ducebat. Ordo = centuria, a com

pany. Ducere ordinem, to command a company, i. e. to be a captain. But there was a difference in the rank of the companies and of their captains. Render," held a high rank as a captain in the army on the Algidus.” The Romans were now at war with the Sabines and the Æquians. One army was sent against the Sabines at Eretum, and another to Mt. Algidus. In c. 42, Livy mentions the defeat of both these armies, and the retreat of the former to Fidenæ, and of the latter to Tusculum.

9. Perinde uxor, etc. Perinde prorsus eo modo, exactly in the same manner, and refers to what has just been said of Virginius That is, “ uxor instituta erat prorsus eu modo, quo Virginius erat exem. pli recti”

“ His wife had been educated in the same manner as Vir. ginius, and so were their children educated.”—Hand, Tursell. vol. 4,

p. 462.

15. Virginem in servitutem, etc. Asserere or vindicare alio

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