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85 troops on the right were chased from their ground by the Gauls, the shout was heard by the proximi, the part of the Roman line nearest the subsidiarii, on their side, ab latere; by the ultimi, those on the left, ab tergo, on their rear. Hence, too, as mentioned in the next sentence, the fugitives in their flight disordered the ranks of the legions, and the whole army was thus routed. See Arnold, vol. 1, 324.

35. Non modo præsidii-sed ne-quidem. Z. § 724. See note on B. 1, c. 40. Yet above, the second non is expressed, non modo non tentato, etc. Alschefski cites another passage from 4, 3, non modo non patricium sed ne civem quidem.

86 CH. XXXIX.-9. Romani, etc. The construction as follows: Romani-complorati-impleverunt. Impleverunt, i. e. "dederunt causam lamentis, quibus urbs impleta est."-Crevier. By a bold and not inelegant figure, the historian represents the dead and the living (that is, the absent, who were supposed to be dead) as filling the whole city with lamentations, because they were the occasion of the general mourning.

18. Primo adventu, etc. I give the common reading, adventu quo, instead of that of Alschefski, adventus quia. The punctuation is also somewhat changed, and is given chiefly according to Büttner. (Observ. Livy, p. 35, quoted by Bauer.) Identidem is explained in the successive clauses, and by the particles deinde-tum-postremo. It is not easy to perceive the force of the clause quia—supererat, as a reason for the opinion that the attack would be made before night, ante noctem. Hence Alschefski suggests either quamquam instead of quia, or a transposition of the clause quia-supererat, so that the sentence should read, deinde sub occasum solis, ante noctem rati se invasuros; tum, quia-supererat, in noctem, etc.

24. Continens fuit, i. e. nullo intervallo secutum, " immediately followed."

25. Ea nocte, neque insequenti die. The battle was fought on the 16th of July. As the Gauls did not enter the city till the morning of the 18th, the Romans had the night of the 16th, and the whole day of the 17th, in which to make such defensive arrangements as their circumstances allowed.

31. Ex loco inde munito. Inde, i. e. ex Capitolio, tanquam ex loco munito. So below, c. 43, atque inde ex loco superiore.

32. Flaminem, i. e. Quirinalem, as mentioned in the next chapter. CH. XL.-44. Ad agmen juvenum. Florus says that the force which garrisoned the Capitol did not exceed a thousand men.—) 1.-I. 13; Arnold, vol. 1, p. 325, n. 38.

87 8. Nihil, quod, etc., i. e. “Nihil relinquebant, quod humana mala possent adjicere ad præsentem Romanorum calamitatem."-Crevier. 10. Persecuta sunt, not prosecuta sunt. "Non enim prose-· quebantur (accompanied) modo viros usque ad arcem, sed perseque


bantur in arcem."-Alschefski. Yet we have above, in Capitolium 87 atque in arcem prosequebantur, where in must have the force of usque ad.

25. Onere partito, part. of a deponent verb, used passively. See note on experta, B. 1, c. 17.

25. Sublicio ponte. See note on B. 1, c. 33, and the Plan of Rome.

CH. XLI.-40. Quæ augustissima vestis-ea vestiti, i. e. ea aug. veste, quæ, etc. See Arn. Pr. Intr. P. I. 30, 53; A. and S. § 206, (7.)

40. Tensas ducentibus. The tense were sacid vehicles, in which were carried the statues of certain deities, in the procession of the Circensian games. 66 They were escorted (deducere) by the senators in robes of state, who laid hold of the bridles and traces, or perhaps assisted to drag the carriage (ducere) by means of thongs attached for the purpose."-Dict. Antiqq.

41. Medio ædium. See note on this expression, B. 1, 57.

41. Eburnis sellis, i. e. the sella curulis, the chair of state, which was ornamented with ivory. Under the republic, the right of using this chair belonged to the dictator, the consuls, prætors, curule ædiles, censors, and to the Flamen Dialis. See Dict. Antiqq. (Sella.)

42. Sunt, qui,-devovisse eos se-tradant. Plutarch gives this account in his Life of Camillus, 21. The devoted offered himself, diis manibus tellurique, (Liv. 8, 9,) as a willing victim on the part of his own countrymen, that the other victims required by fate might be taken from the army of the enemy. The Dii manes, strictly the spirits of a man's own ancestors, here are the powers of death generally. Tellus has in it the notion of the grave. See Arnold, vol. 1, p. 327, note 45.

4. Patente Collina porta. Niebuhr says that the story of the 88 gates being left open is incredible, and adds that Diodorus "states that the Gauls, on finding the walls entirely deserted, burst open the gates." -Hist. Rome, vol. 2, p. 543.

8. Vacuis occursu hominum viis, i. e. "viæ, in quibus nulli homines occurrunt."-Ruperti. Niebuhr compares the feelings of the Gauls on entering the city, and finding it all desolate and deathlike, with that "awe which comes upon a stranger, on passing in summer through a town, in a high northern latitude, at midnight, when all is clear as day, yet no mark of life is to be seen in the streets."—Vol. 2, P. 544.

9. Ea demum. Demum, at least, certainly. "Demum cum pronominibus cujusvis generis conjungitur, ut præstantia aut qualitas propria significatur, et ut major vis adjiciatur demonstrationi."-Hand, Turs. 2, p. 256.

13. Plebis ædificiis- atriis principum. Edificium is the


88 generic word for buildings of all kinds, like oikódnμa. Atrium is a nobler expression, hall; as we say, halls of the great. Other synonymes are ædes, domus, both meaning a dwelling-house; domus as the home of a family, ades as composed of several apartments, like dóμos, δώματα.—D.

16. In ædium vestibulis. "Paulo ante dixit, 'medio ædium. In medio scilicet atrii, quod fere in aditu ædium."-Ruperti. Plutarch, in his Life of Camillus, c. 21, states that they sat in the Forum. Zonaras, 7, 23, says that they were eighty in number. See Niebuhr, vol. 2, p. 542.

16. Ornatum habitumque. Ornatus refers to dress, splendor of apparel; "habitus has a more general sense, whatever belongs to the exterior, cleanliness, mode of dressing the hair, carriage of the body," &c., (Döderlein,) bearing, outward appearance. So also we find in Livy vestitus habitusque, 28, 12; ib. 27; 29, 17; 30, 33. Also cultus habitusque, 23, 34.

18. Simillimos diis. "Primo ut deos venerati, deinde ut homines despicati interfecere." (Auctor de viris illustribus, in Camillo, quoted by Arnold, vol. 2, p. 328.)

20. Gallo-permulcenti. See note on Numitori, B. 1, c. 5. "When the Gauls saw these aged men in this array of majesty, sitting motionless amidst the confusion of the sack of the city, they at first looked upon them as more than human, and one of the soldiers drew near to M. Papirius, and began to stroke reverently his long white beard."-Arnold, vol. 2, p. 328.

See note on perinde, B. 3,

CH. XLII.-30. Perinde atque. c. 44. Atque," as." Z. § 340, Note.

34. Non solum-sed ne-quidem. See note on non modosed ne quidem, B. 1, c. 40.

35. Concipere. This is the reading of the MSS., consipere, the conjecture of Lipsius, the reading of most editions. With either reading the sense is substantially the same: "not only lost all control over their minds, but even their ears and eyes." They were completely bewildered, and could not credit the evidence of their senses.

38. Avertisset, the reading of the MSS., not advertisset, the reading in most editions. Comp. B. 1, 12, averteratque ea res; 6, 23,

in se averterat.

44. Lux deinde, etc. "Nec tranquillior," belongs to lux as well as to nox.-Alschefski.

89 CH. XLIII.-17. Testudine facta. "The name of testudo was applied to the covering made by a close body of soldiers, who placed their shields over their heads, to secure themselves against the darts of the enemy." See Dict. Antiqq.

21. Medio fere clivo, etc. The Capitoline hill was at this time guarded all round by a natural defence of precipitous cliff; and


there was only one regular means of access to the summit from below, 89 the clivus or ascent to the Capitol. Comp. Arnold, vol. 2, p. 328.

22. Inde ex loco, etc. See above, c. 39, note on ex loco munito. 24. Ut nunquam, i. e. ita ut, so that."


32. Ad Romanam, etc. This clause must be joined with duxit, not proficiscentes.

35. Senesceret, "morore contabesceret."-Crevier.

CH. XLIV.-43. Quando, "since." Z. § 346. In this sense it frequently occurs in historical writers.

44. Conditionis meæ, i. e. as an exile.

6. Bello, i. e. belli tempore. So 7, 1, pace belloque; 24, 1, pace 90 ac bello. Also 27, 5; 42, 46. Yet the ablative alone occurs more commonly, joined with an adjective or genitive, as primo Punico bello, 21, 1; Pyrrhi bello, 31, 31. Where the preposition occurs even with an adjective or genitive, e. g. 2, 27, in Volsco bello, and 6, 27, and in other passages, the expression has not an exclusive reference to time. See Z. §§ 318, 476, Note.

12. Cui-dederit. For the subjunctive, see Z. § 558, Note. Comp. above first note on B. 2, c. 8.

17. Vagique-palantur. These words occur together very frequently in Livy. Thus vagos palantes in ", 17; 10, 20; 23, 42; palati vagabantur, 31, 21; vagos palatosque, 33, 15. The idea of wandering about without fixed purpose is common to both expressions' but palari has in it the additional idea of separation from others, and wandering alone.-D.


19. Stationibus ac custodiis. Stationes and custodia are nearly allied in signification, both meaning bodies of soldiers under arms; but statio from stare has in it the idea of remaining, being posted in some place, like our word " "post," outpost;" custodia, from custos, the idea of guarding, protecting, "guard." Thus they are connected by ac or que, not by et. So in B. 21, 14, stationibus custodiisque. So in B. 2, 39, vigilia, "watches," "night-watches," occurs with stationes, and connected in the same way, stationes vigiliasque. On the difference between the conjunctions, see Z. § 333; Arn. Pr. Intr. P. I. p. 18.

22. Omnia Galliam fieri, i. e. "totam hanc regionem fieri Gallorum."-Ruperti.

CH. XLV.-26. Æquis iniquisque, i. e. "amicis et inimicis."Ruperti.

28. Corpora curant. Corpora curare in the sense of cibum sumere, taking food, refreshment, is a common expression in Livy. S. 3, 60; 25, 23; ib. 38; 31, 39. So cibo curare, 9, 37; vino et cibo curare, 34, 16.

44. Ut-habuerint. For the perf. subj. see n. B. 1, c. 3.

7. Compressique. Que has here an adversative force, "but," 91


91 like sed. Arnold, Pr. Intr. P. II. (Eng. ed.) 241, remarks, “que has sometimes an adversative force, especially after negative clauses, like atque, et." So also Madvig, Lat. Sprachl. § 452, Anm. 2.

8. Rem-sustinuere, i. e. distulerunt, “put off" So B. 3, 60, sustinuit-bellum; ib. 65, sustinendo rem.

CH. XLVI.-15. Esse, the historical infinitive, which occurs not unfrequently in the apodosis. Thus B. 5, 9, cum iretur,—tribuni— · contradicere, 6, 11; 21, 54; 22, 30; 23, 3.—Z. § 599, Note.

19. Gabino cinctus. Comp. 8, 9, Incinctus cinctu Gabino. For the description of the cinctus Gabinus, see Dict. Antiqq p. 987


22. Terrorem, used, by metonymy, for any thing which occasions fear. So in B. 4, 21, terrores ac prodigia; 29, 27, cœlestes maritimique terrores. In like manner occur, metus, timor, formido. 37. Negare se commissurum cur, etc. Negare dicere non. Committere cur, 66 to give occasion for." Committere in this sense is usually followed by ut. The construction with cur is rare. Crevier thus gives the sense of the passage: C. declarat sibi curæ fore ne exspectet, dum sibi ab alio aliquo, sine deo sine homine finiatur imperium, sed potius ut ipse posceret imperatorem, eique libens pareret.

92 1. Secundo *Tiberi, “down the Tiber." So 21, 28, secunda aqua; ib. 47, secundam aquam," down the stream."

9-14. Seu-quod-dictus. Livy mentions two opinions in regard to the return of Camillus; the first, that he was conducted to Veii, before the law had been passed by the curies, (lex curiata,) appointing him dictator; the second, that he did not leave Ardea, until after the lex curiata had been passed, and he had been appointed, in his absence, dictator. To the second, Livy himself inclines, as the more probable.

CH. XLVII.-18. Ad Carmentis, sc. ædem. See note on ad Murcia, B. 1, c. 33.

23. Fallerent. Fallere, "to escape the notice of," is very frequent in Livy. So below, fefellere; -and 2, 19, nec fefellit-ducem; 3, 8, Lucretium-agmen fefellit.

39. Classico, primarily a signal given with the cornu, trumpet; then, by metonymy, the instrument itself. Dict. Antiqq., Cornu.Freund.


93 12. Ab-memoria. Ab 66 propter, on account of." So above, c. 44, ab secundis rebus incauti. Also, 2, 49, ab levitate; 4, 32, ab -occasione; ib. 41, ab re male gesta; 21, 36, a glacie. So also, ab ira, a cupiditate, ab odio. See Z. § 305; Hand, Turs. I. p. 32.

CH. XLVIII.-17. Quorum-fecere. The two parts of the sentence as follows: Cum gens-morerentur, jam―urebant bustorumque-fecerunt.

31. Quibus-adoriatur. For the subjunctive, see Z. § 567; A and S. § 264, 5.

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