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Page 32. Stationibus vigiliisque. See above, on c. 44

93 34. Diem de die. De die, literally, “from,” “

away from," i. e. “ immediately after,” “ day after day,” “ from day to day.” So, 25, 25, diem de die deferret. 2 $ 308; Hand, Turs. II. p. 207.

36. Cum stationes procederent, i. e. cum progrederentur milites; ponit ecce, ante oculos, ut aspiciamus famo affectos, procedentes cum armis, vix incedentes, vix arma tenentes."--Bauer.

43. Mille pondo. See Z. $ 87.

CH. XLIX.-5. Prohibuere—vivere. For prohibere with the 94 infinitive see note, B. 1, c. 39. The construction is common in Livy. Compare 4, 49; 5, 26; 8, 38; 9, 30; 26, 41.

20. Providit. We might expect providet, as instruit precedes, were not the change in tenses so common in Livy. Thus, below we have, ibi-obtinuit ; castra capiuntur, ot-relictus. Compare B. 1, 48, arripit-dejecit.

24. Majore momento, i. e. m. vi. Compare note, B. 1, c. 47. Momentum is thus frequently used for the force or effort put forth, in order to effect any thing. Compare 8, 19, levi momento; 21, 43, perlevi momento ; also 23, 24; 24, 34; 42, 59.

25. Justiore-prælio. Prælium justum is a formal, regular battle, in opposition to tumultuarium p., i. e. one that takes place without due preparation, disorderly. So, in B. 23, 37; ib. 40; 35, 4. So also justa pugna, B. 22, 8, and justa acies, 21, 8. For an account of the corruptions of the story of the retreat of the Gauls, seo Arp. Hist. Rome, vol. 1, p. 330.

BOOK XXI.

95 Ch. I.–2. Summæ totius. Totius agrees with summe; the

whole expression = operis universi, the whole work, the wnolo," in distinction from parte operis.

2. Plerique = permulti. In this sense frequent in Tivy: d.g 10, 33; ib. 31; 23, 13. Compare Z. $ 109, Note.

4. Quod-gessere. On the use of the indic. in this clause, instead of the subjunctive, see Z. $ 546,

7. His ipsis, i. e. the Romans and the Carthaginians.

7. Virium-roboris. Vires, strength in attacking, force as the means of effecting any thing; robur, strength in resisting an attack, ip remaining firm.-D. 8. Inter sese. From Alschefski, instead of inter se.

A. joins the words with conserebant, comparing artes conserere with manus conserere, arma conferre.

9. Expertas; used passively. See noto, B. 1, c. 17. On bello, seo note, B. 5, c. 44.

11. Ut-fuerint. On the use of the perf. subj., seo n. B 1, c. 3. 15. Annorum-novem. On the construction, see Z. 98 397, 426.

16. Duceretur. Ducere, here, to take with. Sometimes secum is expressed, as 10, 25, and 34, 56. 96 5. Concessam. The verb on which this word with its acc. de

pends, is readily supplied from angebant, e. g. angebatur. Fabri compares with 1, 46, AngebaturTullia, nihilesse ; and 38, 8 Also Cic. Lælius, 24, 90; Cic. Epist. ad Quint. Fr. 3, 5; Fam. 7, 15. By the terms of the treaty at the end of the First Punic War, Sicily was given up to the Romans.

g. Stipendio—imposito. Etiam belongs to stipendio. Insuper, “ besides.” The troops in Sardinia had revolted from the Carthaginians; and as the Carthaginians were preparing to assert their domin. ion over the island, they were threatened by the Romans with war In the end, the Carthaginians were obliged to give up Sardinia, and oven to pay the sum of twelve hundred talents (stipendium) as compensation for injuries, which it was alleged they had done to the Roman shipping. Compare Schmitz, p. 190.

CH. II.-8, Sub recentem pacem. Sub Simmediatoly aftor. Soo Z. $ 319.

Pago 9, 10. Africo bello-quinque annos. The African, soine- 96 tirnos called the Civil War, took place at the end of the First Punic War, and was occasioned by the failure of the Carthaginians to pay their mercenaries for their services in Italy. According to Polybius, !, 28, it continued only three years and four months.

18. Ob aliam indolem profecto animi. This reading of the MSS. Alschefski has restored, the common reading being, according to the conjecture of Lipsius, altam ind. provecto annis. Alschefski thus explains the passage: Primo dicit Livius, Hasdrubalem Hamilcari conciliatum esse flore ætatis, quem illi fruendum præbuerit ; deinde eum ab eodem generum ascitum esse-quod magna aliqua animi ingenugue indoles in Hasdr. inesset,-ob aliam, id est, ceteram indolem ; ac, no quis de hac ejus indole dubitaret, profecto animi addidit.

19. Factionis Barcinæ. There were two parties at Carthage ; the Barcine, (from Barcas, Lightning, the cognomen of Hamilcar,) and another which favored Hanno. See below, c. 3.

22. Hospitiis, “by friendly connections." • 29. Ut-pråbuerit. On the perf. tense, compare n. B. 1 t. 3. In this instance, the clause with ut does not really express a conse. quence, but simply explains more exactly what has gone before. As therefore the two actions or states in the verbs fuit, præbuerit, do not stand to each other in the relation of succession, but are coincident in time, the perfect is manifestly the proper tense.

31. Fuerat-renovaverat. The pluperfect, because mention had been made of the death of Hasdrubal. But this tense is also frequently used in describing events which are considered preparatory to others, or introductory to them. Compare 21, 11, habuerant ; ib. 21, concesserat ; ib. 32, venerat.

CH. III.–35-38. In—locum-sequeretur. A change of construction. We should expect with in locum some such expression as Hannibal succederet. Such instances of anacoluthon are not uncom. mon in Livy. See A. and S. 9 323, 5; Z. $ 815.

39. Vixdum puberem. Yet Hannibal was then about twenty. two years

old. 44. Quod petit. For the indicative, see abovo on gessere, c. 1. 5. An_timemus, etc. “ Or, do we infer," &c. See note on an

an 97 non sensistis, B. 2, c. 38.

CH. IV-12. Pauci ac f. opt. quisque. Ac is explicative; " and especiully," "and yet;" f. opt. quisque, “ almost all the worthi.. ost men.” See Arn. P. Int. P. I. 400, (c.)

19. Ut pater, i. o. his resemblance to his father On momen Tum, compare notes, B. 1, c. 47, and B. 5, c. 49.

22. Discerneres. See note on timerem, B. 2, c. 7.

24. Fortiter ac strenue, “ with energy and activity For the and strenuus frequently occur together in Livy and in other writers

Pago 97 Fortis neans full of force, energy, vigorous, able ; strenuus, quick in

actiori, active. They express manly qualities, and are therefore used of men as expressions of respect and honor.–Fabri.

24. Ubi-agendum esset. For the subj. see Z. 570.
31. Id, i. e. id temporis. Quodsuperesset. Z. $ 569.
34. Custodias stationesque. See note on B. 5, c. 44.
36. Idem, “at once," " at the same time."

38. Has-viri virtutes, “these his extraordinary virtues." Vir, as well as homo, has frequently the same force as is or ille.

39. Inhumana crudelitas, etc. It must be borno in mind, that this picture of Hannibal is drawn by a Roman, by an historian who was writing for the Roman people. Dr. Schmitz says with truth, that “the character which Livy has drawn of Hanniba. is unfair; the charge of inhumanity is expressly contradicted by Pc ybius, and of his alleged faithlessness not a single instance is known.” Hist. p. 195. Coinpare Dr. Arnold's view of the character of Hannibal, Hist. vol. 2,

P. 489.

43. Magno futuro duci; futuro, “ that was to be;" “ by one destined to be a great general.” 98 Ch. V.-1. Ceterum means primarily “ for the rest,"

quod ad cetera pertinet. It seems to be used here in the sense of however," to indicate that the historian now resumes the course of the narrative, which had been interrupted by the preceding chapter. See Hand, Turs. 2, p. 38.

. 6. Quibus-quia-movebantur. The sense is the same as if it were said more fully, “quia, si Saguntini oppugnarentur, nihil dubi. tandum erat, quin futurum esset, ut Romana arma moverentur.— Alschefski. This use of the indicative for the subjunctive is not very • unusual in the apodosis of conditional clauses. See A. and S. $ 259, R. 4; Z. $ 519, a, b.

9. Rerum serie, finitimis domitis gentibus jungendoque. Rerum serie is more particularly explained by finitimis-jungendoque. The expression jungendoque has occasioned much discussion. The more probable interpretation is given by supplying as an object to jungendu, eas gentes. Fabri considers jungendo as used absolutely; but his explanation seems to me scarcely intelligible. Alschefski regards the whole expression as an instance of hendiadys, (seo A. and S. 9 323, 2, (3); 2. 9 741,) and equal to ad conjungendam domitarum gentium seriem.

12. Quo metu, i. e. cujus rei metu.–Fabri.

13. Stipendio imposito. The abl. abs. expresses the circumstances under which the action in imperium accepere took place; « after a tribute had been imposed upon them.”

16. Stipiendo præterito, “arrears of pay."
29. Adorirentur--disposuit. I follow the reading of Fabri,

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sxcept that et, the conjecture of Gronovius, is omitted. Alschefski 98 roads thus: adorirentur peditum agmen: in ripa elephantos-quadr. a. erat-disponit.

32. Si-dimicaretur; the imperf. subj. instead of the pluperf. dimicatum esset. See Z. 525.

33. Et-freti-et, quod—credebant. On the change in the form of expression, see note on et avite, etc., B. 1, c. 32, and on sed et, etc., ib. c. 40.

35. Quod—interesset. Just before, quodcredebant. For tho difference in mood, see note on B. 2, c. 1.

37. Vis ingens—in flumen immissa. A parallo, expression in B. 2, c. 5, magna vis hominum simul immissa, sc. in campum.

39. Quippe ubi-posset-gereret. Q. U. “ since thera" For the subj. see A. and S. § 264, 8; Z. $ 565.

39. Vel ab, etc., “even by," &c. “ So vel per medios, etc.

CH. VI.-8. Ceterum has here an adversative force, tamen, “yet.” 99 But comp. on this word, Hand, Turs. 2, pp. 35, seqq

9. Quibus-idem-sator. “ Sensus est, Hannibalem, (idem,) qui litem inter Turdetanos et Saguntinos serebat, Turdetanis affuisse contra Saguntinos.”—Sigonius.

11. Legati-missi-orantes. We might expect qui orarent; but there are many similar instances of such a use of the participle. Comp. 22, 38, Consulis-denuntiantis, for in quibus denuntiabat ; 42, 46, legatos-potentes, for qui~peterent. A bolder use of the participle occurs in the preceding chapter, invicta acies, for quæ invicta acies fuisset. On the use of the participle in Livy, see Grysar, (Theorie, etc.) p. 12.

16. Quibus si videretur--denuntiarent, i. e. qui, si iis videretur, denuntiarent.

20. Hac—missa. These words sum up in brief the contents of the complicated dependent clause quideferrent, and prepare the way for the principal clause, omnium-allatum est.

21. Spe celerius. See A. and S. & 256, R. 9; 2. § 484.

23. Decernentes. Decernere, when used in reference to a single person, is equivalent to decerni velle.-Fabri. See B.2, 29, decer. nente ferocissimo quoque; also, 4, 50; 21, 10; 27, 25.

25. Intenderant; the reading of Alschefski from the MSS. instead of intendebant. “ Had directed,” i. e. had declared that the war ought to be directed.

26. Exspectandosque. Que seems here too to be adversative. Leo note on compressique, B. 5, c. 45

CH. VII.-38. Disciplinæ sari titate. Disciplina hic portibet ad cultum domesticum, moderationem in illis, quæ ad victum, cul. tum, voluptates adhibentur.”~-Gronovius. “ Purity of their institutiona." Qua, “in consequence of which.”

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