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99 43. Vineas-aries. See Dict. Antiqq.

44. Ut_ita, “ though-yet.” Z. $ 726. Comp. n. on ut_sic, B 1, c. 25. 100 3. Succedebat; used impersonally. Fabri refers to 24, 19, cuminceptis succederet; 25, 37; 38, 25; 40, 11.

4. Ut in suspecto loco. Livy frequently uses ut in a clause which describes the circumstances under which that which is mentioned in the principal clause takes place; as in a suspected place,” i. e. as is usual-generally is the case-in a suspicious place. So 2, 11, ut in spem universæ prædæ; and below, c. 36, ut a-glacie. Such expressions as ut fit, ut plerumque fit, illustrate this use of ut.

8. Munientibus, “ the working parties," i. e. those who were busy with the works, opera, requisite to the conduct of the siege. Munire, and the words derived from it, refer to the operations, offensive and defensive, alike of a besieged and of a besieging party.

13. Adversum femur, " the front part of the thigh."

15. Opera ac vineæ. Opera is the general word, including all the works employed in carrying on a sioge. So just below, c. 8, operum ac munitionum; c. 11, vinearum aliorumque operum; and B. 2, 17, vineis aliisque operibus.

CH. VIII.-16. Dum-curaretur,“ while—so long as- -the wound of the general was healing," i. e. in order that in the mean time the wound, &c. The subjunctive, because the idea of purpose is involved. So also B. 24, 10, quievere milites, dum præfectus-inspiceret; which Fabri thus explains: eo consilio quieverunt, ut præf. inspiceret. The account of the construction with dum in Z. $575, is insufficient. "Mad. vig, $ 360, A. 2, has a remark directly to the point.

29. Qua, = qua ruina facta vel per quam ruinam.—Alschefski. The pluperf. crediderant expresses the error of the Carthaginians in having supposed their work already done. They had supposed that the city was taken; but, on attempting to enter, they found, on the contrary, that through this very breach in the wall, the Saguntines were advancing to meet them.

33. Justæ acies. See note on just. prelio, B. 5, c. 49. 101 1. Habebat, sc. phalarica. This enormous spear was thrown by the aid of twisted ropes.—See Dict. Antiqq. under Hasta.

4. Medium accensum, sc. telum,“ set on fire in the middle.”

Cu. IX.-3. Quia-resisterent-vicisset. For the subj. see note on quiaquod, B. 2, c. 1. Pro victo, i. e. ut victus, as conquered,

was as good as conquered.” So also B. 2, 7, abiere Romani ut victores, Etrusci pro victis; 4, 3': 8,1; 10, 35.

16. Nec-Hannibali-ope, e esse, i. e. Hannibalem non vacare, " and that Hannibal had no leisure. See n. on op. est, B. 1, c. 24.

Ch X.-26. Monuisse, prædixisse, had advised, had forovarned.” See A. and S. $ 272, R. 4.

name:

Pago 30. Juvenum, etc. On the transition from the oratio obliqua 101 to the recta, seo note on B. 1, c. 47.

38. Utrum-an-an. See Z § 352. In B. 28, 43, wo find utrum-an-an-an.

41. Unde, from which, i. e. from the camp of Hannibal o which the legati had been sent, to deliver their commission to Hannibal. Alschefski thus explains: legati pulsi ab eo lnco, (i. e. prohibiti ne eos adire possent, ad quos a suis cum mandatis ire jussi erant,) unde ne hostium, etc.

43. Publica fraus absit. Hanno, in these words, expresses the sentimonts of the Roman ambassadors, speaks, as it were, in their

“ restitution is demanded in accordance with the treaty: lot the state be free from guilt, but the author,” &c.

1. Ægates insulas Erycemque; tho naval victory gained by 102 the Romans under Lutatius Catulus, in the first Punic war; in consequence of which, Hamilcar, with his troops, was obliged to evacuate Eryx.

5. Sed Tarento, etc. Philinus, an author quoted by Polybius, 3, 26, says that by a league concluded between Carthage and Rome before the first Punic war, the former was to keep aloof from all Italy, the latter from all Sicily.-Crevier.

7. Id de quo-dedit. Another instance of anacoluthon. See above, c. 3. Perhaps Livy intended to say id, de quo, etc., dijudicatum est, and then changed the construction, and wrote eventus—dedit.Fabri. Alschefski proposes the following in explanation: quod ad id attinet, de quo, etc., in respect to that which was, &c.

Ch. XI.-29. Hannibalis erat, “was in Hannibal's interest." For the genitive, see note on ditionis facti, B. 1, c. 26. Grysar (Theorie, &c. p. 10) refers to this use of the gen. with esse, as one of the peculiarities of Livy's style.

39. Nunc ira, in-stimulando, etc. Gronovius proposed ira stimulanda; but, as Fabri has clearly shown, iram stimulare nowhore occurs in Livy, whereas animum stimulare is very common. pression in-stimulando explains ira.

40. Pro concione. See on this expression, B. 3, c. 54. 3. Aliquanto atrocior. See Z. $ 488.

103 6. Turris mobilis. For a description of such a moveable lower, see Dict. Antiqq., Turris.

8. Catapultis ballistisque. Soe Dict. Antiqq., Tormentum.

20. Interiora tuendo, “in defending the interior of the town;" i o in being compelled to retreat farther and farther into the town, tho farther the enemy advanced.

Ch. XII.-31. Cives, i. e. the Carthaginians. 40. Postquam nihil-movebant. For the imperf. seo noto on stabant, B. 1, c. 23. Nihil is used adverbially. So also above,

The Jx

Page 103 aliquid with moturum. See z § 67) The object of movebant and moturum is Hannibalem.

43. Sub conditionibus iis. Fabri remarks that there is but one other passage in Livy, where sub is used with conditionibus, viz. 6, 40. Everywhere else the abl. alone is used. The practice of

Cicero is the same. 104 5. Interpretem, “negotiator.”

6. Publice_hospes, “connected will the Saguntines by ties of friendship and public hospitality." Publice refers to his personal relation to the Saguntine state. By a decree of the state the honors of a hospes publicus, of public hospitality, had 'been conferred upon him. See Dict. Antiqq., Hospitium.

Cu. XIII.-14. Quo—venissem, “ since I should have come.” Alschefskı prefers to translate : since I have come, taking venissem for veni, and accounting for the plup. subj. by the close connection of the clause with the preceding one.

21. Vel ea fides sit, “ let even this be a proof.”

24. Postquam-est. Fabri remarks that this is a brief expression for p. eo ventum est ut sit, etc. Postquam is not construed with the present, unless it is the historic present.

27. Ita—si, “on this condition_if,” “ on condition that.” Comp note, B. 1, c. 8.

36. Cum binis vestimentis. As we read in the preceding chapter cum singulis vestimentis, we must necessarily suppose that in either the one or the other of the passages, some mistake has crept into the text.

Ch. XIV.–44. Permixtum senatui. The simple verb miscere also occurs with the dative. See A. and S. § 224, R. 3. But generPage 36. Creatus a Tib. Sempr., i. e. he had been appointed consul at 105 the comitia over which Sempronius presided. The word creare is thus frequently applied to the presiding magistrate. Fabri, who thus explains the meaning of creatus, quotes, in illustration, B. 2, 2, Brutus collegam sibi comitiis centuriatis creavit P. Valerium; 3, 54, Q. Furius pontifex-tribunos plebis crearet; 25, 41; 28. 10; 32. 27.

ally with the abl. See A. and S. $ 245, II. 105 1. Secessione facta, “having withdrawn.” She expression does not imply any disagreement, but simply means a loco discedere.

3. Eodem; adverbial, referring to ignem.

12. Quod-eventu est, i. e. “ quod imperium crudelo quidem fuit, ceterum prope necessarium cognitum ipso eventu est.” It is an instance of tho Zeugma, see A. and S. § 323, 1, (2); Z. $ 775. On ceterum, seo above, c. 6

14. Super se ipsos, over themselves, " over their own heads." Ch. XV.-23. Octavo mense, quam ;

e. postquam. Post is thus often omitted. See Arn. Pr. Intr. P. I. 310; Z. $ 477 ; A. and S $ 253, R. 1.

27. Ut-fuerint. For the subj. seo Z. 621.

29. Missi sint-et-pugnaverint. The subjunctive is usod, because these two relative clauses form an essential part of the leading proposition introduced by fieri non potuit. Soo A. and S. § 266, 19: Z. $ 547

CH. XVI.-4. Congressum–fuisse. Fabri remarks the fra- 106 quent omission, in animated narration, of the verba dicendi et sen. tiendi, (A. and S. $ 272; 2. 602,) on which the construction of the acc. with the infinitive depends. In illustration, he refers to B. 2. 2; ib. 32 ; ib. 45; 6, 20; 21, 53; ib. 57; 22, 1; ib. 28.

5. Sardos, Corsosque, etc. The wars with these nations occurred during the interval between the first and second Punic wars. Sardinia was occupied by the Romans at the termination of the African war, and Corsica soon after. The war with the Illyrians arose from their (ueen Teuta having put one of the Roman ambassadors to death. The Istrians were tribe of pirates at the northern extremity of the Adria tic, the war with whom was unimportant. The Cisalpine Gauls had various engagements with the Romans between the first and second Punic wars. Comp Keightley's Hist. of Rome, Pt. 3, ch. 2; Arn. Hist. vol. 2, ch. 42.

8. Trium et vig. annorum ; i. e. the interval between the first and the second Punic wars. CH. XVII.-20. Quattuor et viginti ped., etc.

Each legion thus consisted of 4,000 foot and 300 horse.

24. Vellent, juberent. See note on these words, B. 1, c. 46. 29. Ea-erant. For ea instead of eæ, seo Z. $ 372.

32. Naves longæ. These were the ships of war, so called from their length. The ships of burden, naves onerariæ, were not so long, but were broader. See Dict. Antiqq., Ships.

40. Cum suo justo equitatu, “ with their proper quota of cave alry.” See above, n. 1.

43. Eodem versa. This is the reading of Alschefski, from the MSS., instead of eodem anno v., the common reading, which is destitute of authority, and of nondum versa, the conjectural reading of Gronovius. Eodem is used adverbially, as above in c. 14. I prefer, with Fabri, to follow Heusinger in referring versa to the troops mentioned just before, legiones, etc. The objection to this construction arising from the position of versa, Fabri has removed by quoting other passages, about which there can be no doubt; e. g. B. 2, 4, quorum vetustate memoria abiit, where quorum of course deponds upon memoria, not upon vetustate. Also 2, 13, expressa necessitas obsides dandi Romanis ; 3, 53, ne cui fraudi esset, concisse milites ; 22, 42, concursus fit ad prætoria consulum nuntiantium; 43, 19, qua spe cele. riore deditione erectus; and several others.

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Pago 107 CH. XVIII. r. Ut indicerent–bellum. We might expect

ad indicendum-deiun, to agree with the preceding expression, ad percunct. Carin.; but such changes of construction are frequent in Livy, as we have ulserved already in sevoral places. Seo above, c. 5, on etfreti, etc., and the passages there referred to.

13. Ceterum. Soe n. above, c. 6. As if it were more fully said thus : yet, passing over that former one, this embassy, &c. Ceterum may be taken as equivalent to contra, ab altera parte. See Hand, as above.

13. Adhuc, “thus far," the speaker implying that the Roman ambassadors had not yet delivered all their instructions.

18. Censeam, the subj., because the expression of opinion is thus given in a milder and more modest manner, than if the indic. censeo were used. See Z. § 527; A. and S. § 260, R. 4.

23. Nobis-fædus est. We might expect here, instead of an independent clause, a clause with an acc. and infin. dependent upon some verbum dicendi ; g. Since you see fit, &c., then I may emind you that a treaty was concluded, &c. Fabri and Alschefski both remark upon this point, and refer to other passages. See the Preface, si-origines suas ea belli, etc.; B. 2, 12, quandoquidem-honos,trecenti, etc.; and many others. Such a construction, however, is not peculiar to Livy.

24. Caveretur-sociis. On the case which cavere takes, son 2. § 414; Arn. Pr. Intr. P. I. 233.

26. At enim, etc. “But, (you will say,)” &c. At enim is thus frequently used to introduce a real or a supposed objection; but it may be said, but some one will say, &c. It is like the Gr. åddd yàp. Hand, Turs. 1, p. 444; Arn. Pr. Intr. P. II. (Eng. ed.) 471.

31. Aliud-ictum est. “ Senatus Rom. non stotit conditionibus iis pacis, de quibus inter Lutatium et Hamilcarem convenerat; verum decem legatos in Siciliam misit, ex quorum sententia auctoritateque aliud ictum fædus ac confirmatum est.”. -Sigonius.

34. Icit. Alschefsk: has fecit; also below, quodfecit.

41. Bellum dare, sc. 8.'. See Z. $ 605. 108 CH. XIX.-1. Sagunto excisa. Sagunto is here the abl. of Saguntus, which is feminine.

2. Nam, etc. The thought, which is not fully expressed, Fabr thus explains: It was because it best accorded with the dignity of the Roman people that they preferred such a brief, pointed declaration ; for, if they had chosen to go into a verbal controversy, they might have argued as follows: quid fædus, etc.

2. Si-esset. Imperf. for pluperf. See Z. § 525.

4. Quid-comparandum erat. See Krebs' Guide, 270, a; Z. $ 518.

Quamquam, nay more." See Z. g 341, at the end of the Note

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