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CH. 1-4-8. Gallis odia. Gallis, the MS. reading, Alschefski 144 adopts in his larger edition, in place of Galli, his reading in the minox od. It must be joined with verterunt odin; see n. on this use of the dat., B. 1, c. 5. Pro eo—ut, etc., instead of this, that they themselves, &c., i. e. “instead of themselves plundering,” &c. In like manner, pro eo is joined with quod, quantum.-See Hand, Turs. 4, p. 587. As Fabri has remarked, a more common expression than rapere et agere, 18 ferre et agere. See just below, c. 3, fèrri agique.
11. Errore etiam. Error (see n. B. 1, c. 24) means uncertainty, doubt; and hence that which occasions uncertainty, leads into error. Here it means the deception which Hannibal practised to mislead his enemies. Etiam, in connection with insidiis, means “too," " also," the idea being that he had secured himself against the snares of his enemies “ by deception also" on his own part. Mutando-capitis, explanatory of err. et., specifies particular artifices to which he resorted.
17. Quod enim-esse. See n. on quid—esse, 21, 30. Justum, regular, legitimate ; comp. n. on justiore p., B. 5, c. 49. * On Lat. feriis-Capitolio, see notes on B. 21, c. 63.
27. Sanguine sudasse. Sudare, like pluere, (see B. 21, 62, and n.,) and many other verbs, is construed with abl. or acc. Comp. Z. g 383. 1. Sortes attenuatas. See n, B. 21, 62.
145 3. Appia via. This road, called by Statius, (Sylv. 2, 2, 12,) regina viarum, was commenced v. C. 442, by the censor Aprius Claudius Cæcus, (Liv. 9, 29 ;) it issued from the Porta Capena, and terminated at Capua. For the abl. via, see Z. $ 482.
14. Dii divinis carminibus. Alschefski thus reads instead of didis carminibus, retaining divinis, which is found in nearly all the MSS obut supplying, by conjecture, dii, which we can readily believe may lave fallen out beforo divinis, (di divinis.) The other dat. with cordi is thus furnished in sibi, referring to dii; a construction much superior to cordi-divis,-præfarentur, sc. dii.
21. Quin et ut, etc., " nay even that,” &c.
CH. II.-34. Viam per paludem, etc. Hannibal “ crossed the Aponnines, not by the ordinary road to Lucca, descending the valley
145 of the Macra, but, as it appears, by a straighter line down the valley
of the Anser or Serchio; and leaving Lucca on his right, he proceeded to struggle through the low and flooded country, which lay between the right bank of the Amo, and the Apennines below Florence, and of which the marsh or lake of Fucecchio still remains a specimen.”Arn. Hist. Rome, vol. 2, p. 295.
35. Solito magis. Solito, abl. with magis as comparative. See Z $ 484; A. and S. 8 256, R. 9. On the position of solito, see Z
35. Hispanos et Afros et-robur. The latter et is explicative; ss and in general.” Livy follows Polybius, 3, 9, who says, tods Aißvas Kai 'IBnpas kai—duvájews. If it be said that the Hispani and the Afro themselves formed the robur veterani exercitus, wo may reply with Fabri, that many veteran soldiers served in Hannibal's army, who were neither Spanish nor African ; as e. g. 21, 22, Ligures. So also, 21, 22, Livy distinguishes between Libyphænices and Afri; 28, 4, Carthaginienses and Afri; ib., Pæni veterani and Afri. Alschosski explains the passage in the same manner.
42. Qua modo. Qua is equivalent to quacumque via, and modo is restrictive, dummodo, “if only," "provided.” The sense is, that
they went anywhere, if only the guides there led the way. 146 1. Neque-neque-aut, etc. The negation in neque-neque
belongs also to the clause aut-sustinebant. Fabri cites similar in. stances in Livy, 25, 9; 34, 7; 35, 12; also Cicero, Fam. 2, 19.
15. Vigiliis tamen. Tamen is the reading of the MSS., and, as Alschefski has clearly shown, is correct, and agrees well with Livy's
It refers to what precedes, the meaning being, that Hannibal, though he rode upon an elephant, to keep himself above the water, yet, as he had already suffered much from the spring weather lost one of his eyes. The common reading, tandem, which is conjea tural, is therefore unnecessary.
CH. III.-24. Quæ cognosse in rem erant. In rem esse 3 utile esse, expedire. For the perf. infin. cognosse, seo Z. 590; also, Madvig's Lat. Gram. § 407.
28. Non modo sed ne-quidem. See n. on this construction B. 1, c. 40.
42. In consilio; “in the council of war, composed of persons of senatorian rank, the legates, tribunes, and first centurions.”-Fabri 7 4. Cum dedisset, immo, etc. The reading cum dedisset Al schefski adopts in his larger edition from the Harleian MS. Thi common reading is proposuit; but it rests upon doubtful authority Imamo from Alschefski, instead of quia immo. Immo is ironical aye * Aye, let us sit down,” &c.
16. Num litteras, etc. Soen. B. 21, c. 63, on tribunus plebima dc.
20. In vulgus, instead of dat. vulgo.
147 CH. IV.-25. Ad loca nata insidiis. On the scene of this battle, Arnold thus remarks: “ The modern road along the lake, after passing the village of Passignano, runs for some way close to the water's edge on the right, hemmed in on the left by a line of cliffs, which make it an absolute defile. Then it turns from the lake, and ascends the hills; yet, although they form something of a curve, thero is nothing to deserve the name of a valley; and the road, after leaving the lake, begins to ascend almost immediately, so that there is a very short distance during which the hills on the right and left command it.”—Hist. Rome, vol. 2, p. 296. Compare the Note on this passago, ib. p. 505.
29. Ubi-consideret. Ubi is relativo, quo or in quibus; and with consideret expresses purpose ; “ in which to post himself,' &c., or “ that he might post himself,” &c. A. and S. § 264, 5; 2. & 567.
37. Tantum-erat. Tantum-quod, so much, as; ex adver80, opposite to him.
1. Pariter has reference to time; “at the same time.” 148
2. Romanus—prius-quam-sensit. It is unnecessary, with Walch and Bekker, to change the position of prius, and place it directly before quam. Indeed, by such an arrangement, wo might be misled, by supposing that clamore orto are in the ablative absolute. The meaning is this: “The Romans, by the shout that arose, before they could see distinctly, perceived that they were surrounded.” With cerneret wo may supply se circumventum esse, or hostem. Cernere means to see distinctly, in distinction from videre, simply to see. Doederlein.
Ch. V.-6. Ut in re trepida. See notes on ut, B. 1, c. 57, and 21, 34.
14. Tantumque aberat, etc. “ And the soldiers, so far from knowing—had scarcely sufficient presence of mind,” &c. See Z. 779.
19. Gemitus vulnerum; literally, the groans caused by the wounds, equivalent to gem. vulneratorum, " groans of the wounded.”
29. Per principes, etc. According to the ordinary arrangement, the hastati formed the first line, the principes the second, and the triarii the third, as Livy himself has described it in B. 8, c. 8. In this passage he has principes hastatosque, because these two lines preceded the signa, (hence antesignani,) and formed, as were, one body. So also in B. 34, 15. Compare Dict. Antiqq. p. 103.
37. Senserit. On the perf. tense after fuit, see n. on B. 1, c. 3.
CH. VI.–44. Facie quoque, etc. Consul, en, the reading of Gronovius, instead of consulem, Alschefski has adopted; and it is un. questionably the true reading. Compare B. 2, 6, ipse, en, inquit, etc. In that passage, too, compare facie quoque cognovit, with the similar oxprossion here. Inquit is joined here with a dative, popularibua
148 Compare B. 1, 32, inquit ei, quem, etc. So 23, 47; 45, 8. Also Cie
ad Att. 5, 1, 3, inquit mihi. 149 9. Arta præruptaque. These words refer to montes. Com.
pare B. 5, 46, per præruptum—sazum; 21, 32, confragosa omnia oræruptaque ; 27, 18, præcipitia et prærupta.
14. Capessere fugam impulerit, for ad capessendam fugam, or ut fugam càpesserent. See Z. $ 615. This construction with the infinitive occurs very frequently in Tacitus, and also in the poets, but is otherwise rare. Fabri cites Tacitus, Ann. 6, 45; 13, 19; 14, 60.
33. Quæ-conjecit. On the expression Punica rel, compare B. 21, 4. Atque is equivalent to et ita, and so.- Hand, Turs. 1, p. 478. Observe the change from the passive to the active, servataest, conjecit. Fabri cites other instances in Livy, o. g. 1, 4, sacerdos -datur; pueros-jubet; 2, 2, habita cura et-creant. So 3, 49; 33, 3.
CH. VII.-35. Hæc-nobilis-memorata-clades. Observe che cautious and skilful manner in which Livy records this defeat. Nobilis may be used either in a good or a bad sense. Memorata is purposely used instead of memorabilis or memoranda, memorable, as the latter expression would be repulsive both to the historian and his Roman readers. Memorata is equivalent to quæ memoratur, and the historian prefers to say: “One among the few recorded defeats which the Roman people have suffered,” rather than—“ One among the few memorable defeats of the Roman people.” In liko manner, below, 42, Claudii consulis-memorata navalis clades; but in B. 23, 44, memorabilisque inter paucas fuisset ( pugna.)
42. Nihil haustum ex vano, etc. This, the reading of the MSS., s retained by Alschefski, in preference to the conjecture of Walch, auctum ex, etc., adopted by Bekker. Haustum ex vano means drawn from an uncertain source, a source not to be relied upon. As Weissenborn explains : potere ex fonte, unde non certa et vera, sed dybiasumi possunt; and Alschefski-ex eo haurire, quod aut nihil est, aut ron id est, quod videri haberique velit.
43. Fabium. Q. Fabius Pictor, the earliest Roman historian. Comp. n. on B. 2, 40. 150 1. Qui-nominis essent. The subj., because the thought is re
ferred by the writer to Hannibal, not to himself.—Comp. n. on B. 1, c. 6, quoniam, etc., and Z. 98 545–549; Arn. Pr. Intr. P. I. $ 58; A and S. § 266, 3.
3. Flaminii-corpus-inquisitum non invenit: briefly for, Flaminii—corpus inquiri jussit, sed inventum non est.--Alschefski.
10. In comitium et curiam versa in magistratus. The comitium occupied the upper or eastern end of the Forum; it was separatod from the Forum in the narrower sense of that word, by the Rostru
-Seo the Plan of Rome.—The curia here mentioned was the Curia 150 Hostilia, so called from the king who built it, which was on the north side of the Comitium. It was the most important of the buildings early erected upon the Comitium; in it were held the meetings of the Sen. ate, and around it the people were wont to gather, as at the time hero referred to, on all occasions of great public interest.-Becker's Handbuch der Röm. Alt. 1, pp. 281, scqq.; Classical Museum, No. xi. pp. 9, seqq.; Dict. Antiqq. p. 451.
27. Cerneres. See n. on timerem, B. 2, c. 7.
CH. VIII.-43. Ex comparatione, literally, in consequence of tho comparison, i. e. in comparison with.
1-5. Ut-sentiretur, etc. Magis must be joined with sentiretur, 151 and gravior corresponds to levis, and agrees with causa. Valido is in the same construction with affecto; as if it were written in full, quam in valido corpore gravior, etc. Fabri cites other instances of the omission of the preposition; e. g. B. 3, 19, non in plebo coercenda quam senatu castigando; 10, 26, a Gallo hoste quam Umbro. So 26, 41; 31, 39; 36, 11.–Observe the different lenses of the verbs sentiretur, inciderit; the imperf. in the former, because the clause is hypothetical, the perf. in the latter, because the clause expresses what is conceived as an actual occurrence.—See Z. 9 524, note 1.-Æstimandum esse. The acc. with the infinitive depends upon a verb easily supplied from the preceding æstimare.
11. Ante eam diem. On the gender of dies, see Z. $ 86. Fabri says that with the pron. is, Livy generally, though not exclusively, has dies feminine.
CH. IX.-28. Satis quieti-gaudentibus. The clause predam gaudentibus gives the reason for the preceding words; as the soldiers delighted more in plundering than in lying still, a short time was sufficient for rest. Gaudentibus is dat. depending upon datum.
30. Marsos. Devastat governs Marsos as well as agrum, also Marrucinos and Pelignos, as the name of the people stands here for the country itself.
37. Dictator iterum. Fabius had been appointed Dictator four
43. Libros Sibyllinos. See n. B. 21, c. 62. 3. Ludos magnos. See n. on spectacula, B. 1, c. 35. 152
4. Erycinæ, from Mt. Eryx in Sicily, on which was a templo, sacred to Venus. Hence the epithet.
4. Lectisternium. See n. on B. 21, c. 62; and on supplicatio, see Dict. Antiqq. p. 938.
CH. X-14. Velitis jubeatisne. See n. B. 1, c. 46.
15. Populi Romani Quiritium. On this expression, see note on Priscis Latinis, B. 1, c. 32.
17. Quod duellum—sunt. These words Alschefski, following tho