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ajebant. Sed ea res magnae initium cladis fuit. Nam uti quisque domum aut villam, postremo vas aut vestimentum alicujus concupiverat, dabat operam, ut is in proscriptorum' numero esset. Ita illi, quibus Damasippi mors laetitiae fuerat, paulo post ipsi trahebantur; neque prius finis jugulandi fuit quam Sulla omnes suos divitiis explevit. Atque ego haec non in M. Tullio neque his temporibus vereor, sed in magna civitate multa et varia ingenia sunt. Potest alio tempore, alio consule, cui item exercitus in manu sit, falsum aliquid pro vero credi; ubi hoc exemplo per senati decretum consul gladium eduxerit, quis illi finem statuet aut quis moderabitur?' Majores nostri, P. C., neque consilii neque audaciae unquam eguere, neque illis superbia obstabat, quo minus aliena instituta, si modo proba erant, imitarentur. Arma atque tela militaria ab Samnitibus, insignia magistratuum ab Tuscis pleraque sumpserunt: postremo quod ubique apud socios ant hostes idoneum videbatur, cum summo studio domi exequebantur, imitari quam invidere bonis malebant. Sed eodem illo tempore, Graeciae morem imitati, verberibus animadvertebant in cives, de condemnatis summum supplicium sumebant. Postquam res publica adolevit et multitudine civium factiones valuere, circumvenire innocentes, alia hujuscemodi fieri coepere, tum lex Porcia aliaeque leges paratae sunt, quibus legibus exilium damnatis permissum est. Ego hanc causam, P. C., quominus4 novum consilium capiamus, in primis magnam puto. Profecto virtus atque sapientia major in illis fuit, qui ex parvis opibus tantum imperium fecere quam in nobis, qui ea bene partà vix retinemus. Placet igitur eos dimitti et augere exercitum Cati

* Namely, by Sulla, after he had been made dictator.

Pleraque; most of the ensigns and distinctions by which the magistrates were distinguished from private persons, especially the toga praetexta, sella curulis, fasces (which were carried by the lictors), and, above all, the splendid procession of the triumphatores.

3 Legibus is here a pleonasm, and might have been omitted. We must here repeat that Caesar makes an artful application of the circumstance that, in all the late criminal laws, the interdictio aquae et ignis was fixed as the severest punishment, as if thereby a person had been simply permitted to withdraw from the republic. The interdictio was a much more severe punishment, inasmuch as the person on whom it was inflicted lost all his rights as a citizen, and as every one was forbidden to receive him into his house, so that he was a complete outcast. Wherever these regulations were not carried into effect, and even in case a criminal made his escape before the sentence was pronounced, we can see nothing but an abuse of clemency.

* Quominus is here used because the leading clause conveys the idea of a hindrance; but ne also might have been written.

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linae ? Minime, sed ita censeo : publicandas eorum pecunias, ipsos in vinculis habendos per municipia,' quae maxime opibus valent; neu quis de his postea ad senatum referat neve cum populo agat; qui aliter fecerit, senatum existimare eum contra rem publicam et salutem omnium facturum.'

52. Postquam Caesar dicendi finem fecit, ceteri verbo alius alii varie assentiebantur: at M. Porcius Cato, rogatus sententiam, hujuscemodi orationem habuit: 'Longe mihi alia mens est, P. C., quum res atque pericula nostra considero, et quum sententias nonnullorum mecum ipse reputo. Illi mihi disseruisse videntur de poena eorum, qui patriae, parentibus, aris atque focis suis bellum paravere; res autem monet cavere ab illis magis quam, quid in illos statuamus, consultare. Nam cetera maleficia tum persequare, ubi facta sunt; hoc nisi provideris ne accidat, ubi evenit, frustra judicia implores; capta urbe nihil fit reliqui victis. Sed, per deos immortales, vos ego appello, qui semper domos, villas, signa, tabulas vestras pluris quam rem publicam fecistis,: si ista, cujuscunque modi sunt quae amplexamini, retinere, si voluptatibus vestris otium praebere vultis, expergiscimini aliquando et capessite rem publicam. Non agitur de' vectigalibus neque de sociorum injuriis: libertas et anima nostra in dubio est. Saepenumero, P. C., multa verba in hoc ordine feci,o saepe de luxuria atque avaritia nostrorum civium questus sum, multosque mortales ea causa adversos habeo ; qui mihi atque animo meo nullius unquam delicti gratiam fecissem, haud facile alterius libidini male facta condonabam. Sed ea tametsi vos parvi pendebatis, tamen res publica firma erat; opulentia neglegentiam tolerabat.” Nunc vero non id agitur, bonisne an malis moribus

1 Per municipia, 'among the municipia.' See Zumpt, 301.

· Cato says, “When I consider the danger of our situation, I form quite a different view from what I do when I reflect upon the opinions expressed by some about the punishment of the criminals; for the present danger demands energetic measures of defence, while some of you are speaking only about the punishment of a crime already committed. But such a view is incorrect, for we are still surrounded by the greatest dangers.'

3 Pluris facere, 'to esteem higher.'

4 Capessere rem publicam, ' to take part in the administration of the state,' or 'to devote one's self to its service.'

6 Verba facere, to speak,' or 'to make a speech.'

6. I who had never connived at any of my bad acts'—that is, I who had never given way to my own weaknesses. About this subjunctive expressing the reason why the orator does not allow the faults of others to pass unnoticed, see Zumpt, DD 555, 558.

7. The strength of the state bore the negligence' in restraining the arbitrary proceedings in which individuals indulged.

vivamus, neque quantum aut quam magnificum imperium populi Romani sit, sed haec cujuscunque modi videntur, . nostra an nobiscum una hostium futura sint. Hic mihi quisquam mansuetudinem et misericordiam nominat.' Jampridem equidem nos vera vocabula rerum amisimus, quia bona aliena largiri liberalitas, malarum rerum audacia fortitudo vocatur, eo res publica in extremo sita est. Sint sane, quoniam ita se mores habent, liberales ex sociorum fortunis, sint misericordes in furibus aerarii; ne illi sanguinem nostrum largiantur, et dum paucis sceleratis parcunt, bonos omnes perditum eant. Bene et composite G. Caesar paulo ante in hoc ordine de vita et morte disseruit, credo falsa existimans ea, quae de inferis memorantur, diverso itinere malos a bonis loca taetra, inculta, foeda atque formidolosa habere. Itaque censuit pecunias eorum publicandas, ipsos per municipia in custodiis habendos; videlicet timens, ne, si Romae sint, aut a popularibus conjurationis aut a multitudine conducta per vim eripiantur. Quasi vero mali atque scelesti tantummodo in urbe et non per totam Italiam sint, aut non ibi plus possit audacia, ubi ad defendendum opes minores sunt. Quare vanum equidem hoc consilium est, si periculum ex illis metuit; sin in tanto omnium metu solus non timet, eo magis refertø me mihi atque vobis timere. Quare quum de P. Lentulo ceterisque statuetis, pro certo habetote," vos simul de exercitu Catilinae et de omnibus conjuratis decernere. Quanto vos attentius ea agetis, tanto illis animus

1. And here any one will speak to me of clemency and mercy!' alluding to Caesar. The negative pronoun quisquam is used because the meaning implied is, that no one ought to have done so. See Zumpt, v 709.

2 Équidem for quidem, as often in Sallust, but never in Cicero. The meaning is :. We have indeed (quidem) long since lost the habit of calling things by their true names, but this erroneous application of the word mercy is not to be borne.'

3 Eo; Cicero would have said ea re.

* Instead of et, the author might have used neve (neu), since from the preceding clause we have to supply ne to et. This is not a very common mode of speaking ; but it occurs most frequently when, after a negative clause, et introduces a kind of antithesis, and thus acquires the power of sed.

. Et non corrects the untrue supposition, that there were no rebels except at Rome. In such a case we can neither use non without et, nor neque. See Zumpt, \ 334.

6. If Caesar alone is unconcerned, it is more requisite (necessary or important) that I should be concerned for me and for you.' About rēfert, see Zumpt, Dý 23, 449, note.

? Habetote; this future imperative denotes that something is to be done when something else shall take place. Zumpt, u 583.

infirmior erit; si paululum modo vos languere viderint, jam omnes feroces aderunt.' Nolite existimare, majores nostros armis rem publicam ex parva magnam fecisse. Si ita res esset, multo pulcherrimam eam nos haberemus; quippe sociorum atque civium, praeterea armorum atque equorum major nobis copia quam illis est. Sed alia fuere, quae illos magnos fecere, quae nobis nulla sunt, domi industria, foris justum imperium, animus in consulendo liber, neque delicto neque libidini obnoxius.3 Pro his nos habemus luxuriam atque avaritiam, publice egestatem, privatim opulentiam; laudamus divitias, sequimur inertiam; inter bonos et malos discrimen nullum est; omnia virtutis praemia ambitio possidet. Neque mirum: ubi vos separatim sibi quisque consilium capitis, ubi domi voluptatibus, hict pecuniae aut gratiae servitis, eo fit, ut impetus fiat in vacuam rem publicam. Sed ego haec omitto. Conjuravere nobilissimi cives patriam incendere, Gallorum gentem infestissimam nomini Romano ad bellum accersunt; dux hostium cum exercitu supra caput est: vos cunctamini etiamnunc, quid intra moenia deprensis hostibus faciatis ?? Misereamini censeos, -deliquere homines adolescentuli per ambitionem,-atque etiam armatos dimittatis. Nae ista vobis mansuetudo et misericordia, si illi arma ceperint in

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1 The meaning is : «All will be there immediately'—that is, they will rise to make the attack.

Cato means to say, 'It is a wrong opinion that our state has become great by arms; for if this were true, it would now be in the most flourishing condition, as our military power is now greater than it ever was. The republic has become great much more by the activity of the citizens, and by the justice of the government, and it is this activity and stern justice that must be restored.'

3 Obnoxius, subject to a punishment,' or 'to be injured (noza);' hence, figuratively, “bound, dependent. Our ancestors, says Cato, could deliberate and judge without bias, for their minds were not crippled either by crimes they had committed, nor by immoderate desires and passions—a hint intimating that those who were in favour of lenient measures were conscious of their own guilt, and not free from bad intentions.

* Hic—that is, in the senate, in discussing matters of public importance, you allow yourselves to be guided only by your desire 10 gain money and popularity, being anxious not to offend any one who may be in your way.

Vacuam-namely, a defensoribus, defenceless,'' helpless.' 6 Incendere, a free use of the infinitive for ad patriam incendendam.

"A question expressive of wonder, in which the interrogative particles are commonly not used. See Zumpt, $ 351, note.

8 Ironically: 'I am of opinion that you should have mercy, and dismiss the criminals.' The subjunctive without ut depends upon the verb censeo; it is not a subjunctive for an imperative.

miseriam convertet.' Scilicet res ipsa aspera est, sed vos non timetis eam.2 Immo vero3 maxime; sed inertia et mollitia animi alius alium expectantes cunctamini, videlicet dis im. mortalibus confisi, qui hanc rem publicam saepe in maximis periculis servavere. Non votis neque suppliciis muliebribus auxilia deorum parantur; vigilando, agendo, bene consulendo prospera omnia cedunt; ubi socordiae te atque ignaviae tradideris, nequidquam deos implores;4 irati infestique sunt. Apud majores nostros A. Manlius Torquatus bello Gallico filium suum, quod is contra imperium in hostem pugnaverat, necare jussit, atque ille egregius adolescens immoderatae fortitudinis morte poenas dedit: vos de crudelissimis parricidis quid statuatis cunctamini? Videlicet cetera vita eorum huic sceleri obstat. Verum parcite dignitati Lentuli, si ipse pudicitiae, si famae suae, si dis aut hominibus unquam ullis pepercit; ignoscite Cethegi adolescentiae, nisi iterum jam patriae bellum fecit. Nam quid ego de Gabinio, Statilio, Caepario loquar ? quibus si quidquamo unquam pensi fuisset, non ea consilia de re publica habuissent. Postremo, P. C., si mehercule peccato locus esset, facile paterer vos ipsa re corrigi, quoniam verba contemnitis; sed undique circumventi sumus. Catilina cum exercitu faucibus urguet :S alii intra moenia atque in sinu

" Assuredly this_clemency of yours will end in misery.' Respecting nae, see Zumpt, $ 360; and on the transitive sense of vertere, 145.

2 The sentence beginning with scilicet is again ironical. The sense, without the irony, is : Nor can it be supposed that you consider the matter indeed difficult, but that you are without fear. You are, on the contrary, full of fear, but you hesitate.' 3 Immo vero, oh no; on the contrary.' See Zumpt, 277.

Respecting this form of hypothetical sentences, see Zumpt, 6.524, note 1. The verb in the apodosis might be implorabis, without altering the meaning:

• This statement differs in two points from the current tradition of history. First, the praenomen of this Manlius is commonly Titus, and so we must no doubt correct here, even though the manuscripts have Aulus. Secondly, he did not show his severe military discipline towards his son in the Gallic war, but in the great Latin war, which ended, in B. c. 340, with the subjugation of Latium. Manlius ordered his son to be executed in presence of the army; and to characterise that harsh severity, the orator uses the word necare instead of interficere or occidere.

6 Quidquam is stronger than siquid—that is, the expression of the negative is more strongly marked in the protasis.

If there were room for a mistake'--namely, in the resolution to be come to. The meaning is: “No time is to be lost, since, if you come to a wrong determination, you will be

ned before you have time to correct your decision.' 8 • Is upon our necks,' a figurative expression, properly applied to

estler who seizes another by the throat.

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