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56. Dum ea Romae geruntur, Catilina ex omni copia, quam et ipse adduxerat et Manlius habuerat, duas legiones instituit, cohortes pro numero militum complet, deinde, ut quisque voluntarius aut ex sociis in castra venerat, aequaliter distribuerat, ac brevi spatio legiones numero hominum expleverat, quum initio non amplius duobus milibus3 habuisset. * Sed ex omni copia circiter pars quarta erat militaribus armis instructa; ceteri, ut quemque casus armaverat, sparos aut lanceas, alii praeacutas sudes portabant. Sed postquam Antonius cum exercitu adventabat, Catilina per montes iter facere, modo ad urbem, modo in Galliam versus castra movere, hostibus occasionem pugnandi non dare; sperabat propediem magnas copias sese habiturum, si Romae socii incepta patravissent. Interea servitia repudiabat, cujus® initio ad eum magnae copiae concurrebant, opibus conjurationis fretus, simul alienum suis rationibus existimans, videri? causam civium cum servis fugitivis communicavisse.

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1 A regular military force is more commonly called copiae, but the singular, copia, also occurs in the sense of .army,' especially when it consists of an irregular mass of troops..

2 Cohortes complet cannot mean in this passage,' he makes the cohorts complete,' for such a completeness (consisting of at least 420 men) is incompatible with the addition pro numero militum, • according to the number of his soldiers' in each cohort was not the usual number of a complete cohort. Complet refers to the number of cohorts, ten of which made a legion. Translate therefore, ‘he makes the full number of cohorts.'

3 Duobus milibus. Sallust might have said duo milia, with the ellipsis of quam so customary with plus, amplius, and minus. See Zumpt, 485.

Sparus is said to be a wooden kind of weapon, resembling a shepherd's staff, turned at the top ; and lancea a spear with a handle in the middle. Both these weapons were not used by Roman sol. diers, for the latter, besides the short and broad gladius, used the pilum, as long as a man is high, and as thick as a fist, the upper end of which was strongly provided with iron, and sometimes the hasta, which was still longer, and had an iron point. 5 L. Antonius, the colleague of Cicero in the consulship, B. C. 63.

Servitia, cujus magnae copiae; a singular construction, which cannot be explained otherwise than by taking cujus as a neuter, • slaves, of which large numbers flocked to him.'. This explanation, however, is supported by the consideration that slaves were regarded as things, and were designated by names of the neuter gender, as servitia, mancipia. In ordinary language, we should say cujus generis, of which class of men.'

. Videri for se videri, he thought it contrary to his interest to appear to have maintained the cause of citizens with the aid of runaway slaves. Respecting the omission of the subject of the infinitive when it is a personal pronoun, see Zumpt, 605.

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57. Sed postquam in castra nuntius pervenit Romae conjurationem patefactam, de Lentulo et Cethego ceterisque, quos supra memoravi, supplicium sumptum; plerique, quos ad bellum spes rapinarum aut novarum rerum studium illexerat, dilabuntur; reliquos Catilina per montes asperos magnis itineribus in agrum Pistoriensem' abducit, eo consilio, uti per tramites occulte perfugeret in Galliam Transalpinam. At Q. Metellus Celer cum tribus legionibus in agro Piceno praesidebat, ex difficultate rerum eadem illa existimans, quae supra diximus, Catilinam agitare. Igitur, ubi iter ejus ex perfugis cognovit

, castra propere movet ac sub ipsis radicibus montium consedit, qua illi descensus erat in Galliam properanti. Neque tamen Antonius procul aberat, utpote qui magno exercitu locis aequioribus expeditos in fuga sequeretur. Sed Catilina postquam videt montibus atque copiis hostium sese clausum, in urbe res adversas, neque fugae neque praesidii ullam spem, optimum factu ratus, in tali re fortunam belli temptare, statuit cum Antonio quam primum confligere. Itaque contione advocata hujuscemodi orationem habuit:

58. “Compertum ego habeo, milites, verba virtutem non addere, neque ex ignavo strenuum neque fortem ex timido exercitum oratione imperatoris fieri. Quanta cujusque animo audacia natura aut moribus inest, tanta in bello patere solet. Quem neque gloria neque pericula excitant, nequidquam hortere; timor animi auribus officit. Sed ego vos, quo pauca monerem, advocavi; simul uti causam mei consilii aperirem. Scitis equidem, milites, socordia atque ignavia Lentuli quan

1 The territory of Pistoria, in the north of Etruria, not far from Faesulae, and to the north of Florentia, is in the Apennines. The re road from Pisae to Genoa, and thence across the Alps into Transalpine Gaul, ran along the sea-coast. Cisalpine Gaul was likewise protected against Catiline by Metellus, so that he could reach his goal (Transalpine Gaul) only by mountain passes.

2 Antonius followed the bands of Catiline, which were not incon. venienced by baggage, as they were fleeing (in fuga ; that is, fugientes). Antonius's army marched on smoother roads, but had to carry heavier baggage. From all this, we see why Antonius, though not far from the enemy, yet could not reach him. Respecting the adverb utpote, see Zumpi, $ 271. Utpote qui, the which,' is used as a conjunction for quippe qui, generally with the subjunctive, and indicates the cause of the preceding statement.

3 Officere is properly to oppose,' obstruct,' aliquid alicui rei; then omitting the object (aliquid) with the dative alone, to be an obstacle to,' or 'to hinder,' therefore, officio famae tu .I oppose something to your fame.' Internal fear is a hindrance to the ear,' so that admonitions are either not heard at all, or do not penetrate into the mind.

tam ipsi nobisque cladem attulerit; quoque modo, dum ex urbe praesidia opperior, in Galliam proficisci nequiverim.' Nunc vero quo in loco res nostrae sint, juxta mecum omnes intellegitis. Exercitus hostium duo, unus ab urbe, alter a Gallia obstant; diutius in his locis esse, si maxime animus ferat, frumenti atque aliarum rerum egestas prohibet. Quocunque ire placet, ferro iter aperiundum est. Quapropter vos moneo, uti forti atque parato animo sitis et, quum proelium inibitis, memineritis vos divitias, decus, gloriam, praeterea libertatem atque patriam in dexteris vestris portare. Si vincimus, omnia nobis tuta erunt, commeatus abunde, municipia atque coloniae patebunt; sin metu cesserimus, eadem illa adversa fient: neque locus neque amicus quisquam teget, quem arma non texerint. Praeterea, milites, non eadem nobis et illis necessitudo impendet; nos pro patria, pro libertate, pro vita certamus: illis supervacaneum est pro potentia paucorum pugnare. Quo audacius aggredimini, memores pristinae virtutis. Licuit vobis cum summa turpitudine in exilio aetatem agere; potuistis nonnulli Romae amissis bonis alienas opes expectare: quia illa foeda atque intoleranda viris videbantur, haec4 sequi decrevistis. Si haec relinquere vultis, audacia opus est; nemo nisi victor pace bellum mutavit.5 ' Nam in fuga salutem sperare, quum arma, quiso corpus tegitur, ab hostibus averteris, ea vero dementia est. Semper in proelio iis maximum est periculum, qui maxime timent; audacia pro muro habetur. Quum vos considero, milites, et quum facta vestra aestimo, magna me spes victoriae tenet. Animus, aetas, virtus vestra me hortantur;? praeterea necessitudo, quae etiam timidos fortes facit. Nam multitudo hostium ne circumvenire queat, prohibent angustiae loci. Quodsi virtuti

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· Catiline assigns the circumstance that he had expected aid and succours from Rome itself, as the cause of his not having set oat for Gaul earlier, when he might have accomplished his end. Opperior, 'I wait for,' or expecto dum aliquis veniat.

2 Quo in loco, in which situation. The preposition in might have been omitted. See Zumpt, \ 481.

Egestas, want,' with the genitive of the thing wanted, is of rare occurrence for inopia or penuria. Egestas is commonly used absolutely in the sense of poverty,' 'neediness.'

* Haec is here used in the general sense of these circumstances;' that is, this honourable but difficult war. This we must infer from the haec following.

3 For the construction of mutare, see Zumpt, 456. 6 Quis for quibus. Ea, not id. Zumpt, » 372.

Give me courage,' or 'give me hope,' for hortari is applied to persons doing good things, and admonere to persons doing bad ones : hortamur properantem, admonemus cunctantem.

vestrae fortuna inviderit, cavete, inulti animam amittatis, neu capti potius sicuti pecora trucidemini, quam virorum more pugnantes cruentam atque luctuosam victoriam hostibus relinquatis.

59. Haec ubi dixit, paululum commoratus, signia canere jubet, atque instructos ordines in locum aequum deducit. Dein, remotis omnium equis, quo militibus exaequato periculo animus amplior esset, ipse pedes exercitum pro loco atque copiis instruit. Nam, uti planities erat inter sinistros montes et ab dextera rupe aspera, 3 octo cohortes in fronte constituit, reliquarum signat in subsidio artius collocat. Ab his centuriones omnes, lectos et evocatos, praeterea ex gregariis militibus optimum quemque armatum in primam aciem subducit.5

* Cavetemamittatis, neu trucidemeni for cavete, ne amittatis, neve (neu) trucidemini. See Zumpt, $ 586.

2 Canère is used in different ways: tubicen canit signum, the trumpeter blows the signal;' tubicen canit, “the trumpeter blows (his instrument);' signa canuntur, signals are blown' or 'given;' and lastly, signa canunt, “the signals sound. The last expression is the one used in our passage.

3 Rupe asperu, &c. For in accordance with the nature of the plain between hills on the left-hand side, and on the right a rugged rock, he drew up (only) eight cohorts in front.' A simpler construction would have been et rupem asperam a dextra, but the manuscripts are decidedly in favour of the ablative, which must be considered as an ablative absolute, and as forming a distinct clause. Other editions have the correction rupis aspera, 'the rough part of a rock’ (aspera being the neut. plur.), but this is a poetical expression. See Zumpt, 435.

* Literally, · The signals (vexilla) of the other cohorts he places in the rear as a reserve, more closely together.' Signa here denotes the separate divisions of the troops; that is, the cohorts and the three maniples in each cohort, which are distinguished from one another by their flags or banners (vexilla). When an army was drawn up in a spacious plain, a space was left between the several divisions, but in this case, the plain being too narrow, there were no such spaces.

5. From among these who were drawn up as a reserve, he draws, for the purpose of strengthening the van, all centurions, picked men (in apposition), and the volunteers who had not been enlisted, as well as the ablest of the common soldiers who were provided with arms.' The word lectos belonging to centuriones, shows that Catiline had appointed to the office of centurions only chosen men who were personally known to him as able soldiers. Evocati were those soldiers in a Roman army who did not serve in the ranks of the other common soldiers, but as a separate corps, and were exempt from the ordinary military duties of standing as sentinels, making fortifications, foraging, and the like. They derived their name from the fact that they were invited (evocare) by the general to serve in the army as volunteers; they, moreover, were generally more advanced in years than the regular troops.

G. Manlium in dextera, Faesulanum quendam in sinistra parte curare! jubet; ipse cum libertis et colonis propter aquiIam assistit, quam bello Cimbrico G. Marius in exercitu habuisse dicebatur. At ex altera parte G. Antonius, pedibus aeger,) quod proelio adesse nequibat, M. Petreio legato4 exercitum permittit

. Ille cohortes veteranas, quas tumulti causa conscripserat, in fronte post eas ceterum exercitum in subsidiis locat. Ipse equo circumiens, unum quemque nominans appellat, hortatur, rogat, ut meminerint, se contra latrones inermes, pro patria, pro liberis, pro aris atque focis suis certare. Homo militaris, quod amplius annos triginta tribunus aut praefectus aut legatus aut praetor cum magna gloria in exercitu fuerat, plerosque ipsos factaque eorum fortia noverat; ea commemorando militum animos accendebat.

60. Sed ubi, omnibus rebus exploratis, Petreius tuba signum dat, cohortes paulatim incedere jubet, idem facit hostium exercitus. Postquam eo ventum est, unde a ferentariis proelium committi posset, maximo clamore cum infestis signis? concurrunt; pila omittunt, gladiis res geritur. Veterani, pristinae virtutis memores, comminus acriter instare; illi

· Curare, 'to command.'

2 Catiline himself stood nearest the standard (eagle) with his most faithful followers, whose personal fate depended upon him; that is, the freedmen of his family and the tenant farmers of his estates. The Roman nobles, as early as that time, used to parcel out their estates in small farms, which were tenanted especially by their freedmen, who were thus patronised by their former masters.

3 Pedibus aeger. He had the gout. Dion Cassius, a later historian of Rome, who wrote in Greek, states that Antonius only pretended to be ill, in order not to have to fight against his friend Catiline.

* A legatus, in this sense (for it also means "ambassador'), supplied, in a Roman army, the place of a commander possessing the imperium. Accordingly, consuls and praetors, when intrusted with the command of an army, had one or more legates, according to the number of legions which they had under their command. The office of legate was given by the senate to such men as had held a magistracy, generally the praetorship, or at least the quaestorship, and the senate appointed them on the proposal of the commanderin-chief. When there were several legates, the commander-inchief might intrust one of them with the command of the whole army; but the commander-in-chief was answerable for all the acts of his legate.

5 Tumulti for tumultus, as senati for senatus.

6 Ferentarii are light-armed troops fighting at a distance with javelins.

* The banners being turned hostilely against one another. 'Respecting cum, see Zumpt, 473; for we also find infestis signis concurrere, without cum, as an ablative of the instrument.

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