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haud timidi resistunt; maxima vi certatur. Interea Catilina cum expeditis in prima acie versari, laborantibus succurrere; integros pro sauciis accersere, omnia providere, multum ipse pugnare saepe, hostem ferire; strenui militis et boni imperatoris officia simul exequebatur. Petreius, ubi videt Catilinam, contra ac ratus erat, magna vi tendere, cohortem praetoriam! in medios hostes inducit, eosque perturbatos atque alios alibi resistentes interficit; deinde utrimque ex lateribus ceteros aggreditur. Manliús et Faesulanus in primis pugnantes cadunt. Postquam fusas copias seque cum paucis relictum videt Catilina, memor generis atque pristinae suae dignitatis, in confertissimos hostes incurrit ibique pugnans confoditur.
61. Sed confecto proelio, tum vero cerneres, quanta audacia quantaque vis animi fuisset in exercitu Catilinae. Nam fere, quem quisque vivus pugnando locum ceperat, eum amissa anima corpore tegebat. Pauci autem, quos medios3 cohors praetoria disjecerat, paulo diversius, sed omnes tamen adversis vulneribus4 conciderant. Catilina vero longe a suis inter hostium cadavera repertus est, paululum etiam spirans ferociamque animi, quam habuerat vivus, in vultu retinens. Postremo ex omni copia neque in proelio neque in fuga quisquam civis ingenuus captus est: ita cuncti suae hostiumque vitae juxta pepercerant. Neque tamen exercitus populi Romani laetam aut incruentam victoriam adeptus erat; nam strenuissimus quisque aut occiderat in proelio aut graviter vulneratus discesserat. Multi autem, qui de castris visundi aut spoliandi gratia processerant, volventes hostilia cada
1 The cohors praetoria was a battalion which, in forming an army, was composed of the ablest and most tried soldiers, as the body, guard of the commander-in-chief. They had to protect him, and assist him in contriving to bring any engagement to the point where he wished it to be. Under the emperors, the cohortes praetoriae, nine or ten in number--the emperors having several armies under their command-formed the body-guard of the emperor and the garrison of Rome.
2. There you might, indeed have seen.' See Zumpt, s 528, note 2.
3 In the centre of the army where they were drawn up. * Adversa vulnera, 'wounds in the breast,' or 'in the front part of the body generally. Aversa vulnera, on the other hand, are • wounds in the back, such as are inflicted on cowards that run away.
Quisquam for ullus. See Zumpt, $ 676. 6 Juxta, .equally little.' They had spared the life of their enemy as little as their own. Compare p. 41, note 3.
vera, amicum alii, pars hospitem aut cognatum reperiebant; fuere item, qui inimicos suos cognoscerent. Ita varie per omnem exercitum laetitia, moeror, luctus atque gaudia' agitabantur.
· These four substantives form contrasts, though intentionally not in the regular way, for gaudium and moeror denote a joyous and sad state of mind, joy' and 'sadness;' laetitia and luctus at the same time express the audible expressions of joy and grief. Accordingly, laetitia contrasts with luctus, and gaudia with moeror. Respecting the omission
of the conjunction in describing contrasts of this nature, see Zumpt, \ 783.
C. SALLUSTII CRISPI
1. Falso queritur de natura sua genus humanum quod imbecilla atque aevi brevis forte potius quam virtute regatur. Nam contra reputando neque majus aliud neque praestabilius invenias, magisque naturae industriam hominum quam vim aut tempus deesse. , Sed dux atque imperator vitae mortalium animus est, qui, ubi ad gloriam virtutis via grassatur, abunde pollens potensque et clarus est, neque fortuna eget, quippe probitatem, industriam aliasque artes bonas neque dare neque eripere cuiquam potest. Sin captus pravis cupidinibus ad inertiam et voluptates corporis pessumdatus est, perniciosa libidine paulispert usus, ubi per socordiam vires, tempus, ingenium diffluxere, naturae infirmitas accusatur; suam quisque culpam auctores ad negotia transferunt. Quodsi hominibus bonarum rerum tanta cura esset, quanto studio aliena ac nihil profutura multumque etiam periculosa" petunt; neque regerenture magis quam regerent casus, et eo magnitudinis: procederent, ubi pro mortalibus gloria aeterni fierent.
2. Nam uti genus hominum compositum ex corpore et anima est, ita res cunctae studiaque omnia nostra corporis
* Aevi brevis, of short duration. Aevum, in the sense of aetas, is rather poetical, and does not occur till a rather late period; whence the common expression medium aevum, the middle ages,' is not exactly in accordance with the best Latinity.
Invenias; supply quam naturam humanam. 3 Grassatúr, the same as ingreditur, advances towards ;' but grassari has the additional meaning of power and vehemence, whence it is often used to mark the progress of something bad.
Paulisper, ‘for a short time.' 5 Auctores contains a whole clause—' every one transfers his own fault, though he himself is the author of it, to circumstances;' that is, to the things which he himself has done.
Quodsi, .if, however.' Zumpt, ♡ 807. ? And at the same time very dangerous. In many cases one feels inclined to assign to the adverb multum the meaning of often,' but with adjectives, it is used only to strengthen their meaning.
Regerentur; supply casibus. 9 Eo magnitudinis; that is, ad eam magnitudinem, 'to that greatness.' See Zumpt, 434.
alia, alia animi' naturam sequuntur. Igitur praeclara facies, magnae divitiae, ad hoc vis corporis et alia hujuscemodi omnia brevi dilabuntur; at ingenii egregia facinora sicuti anima immortalia sunt. Postremo corporis et fortunae bonorum ut initium sic finis est, omniaque orta occidunt et aucta senescunt: animus incorruptus? aeternus, rector humani generis, agit atque habet cuncta neque ipse habetur. Quo magis pravitas eorum admiranda est, qui dediti corporis gaudiis per luxum atque ignaviam aetatem agunt, ceterum ingenium, quo neque melius neque amplius aliud'in natura mortalium est, incultu atque socordia torpescere sinunt; quum praesertim tam multae variaeque sint artes animi, quibus summa claritudo paratur.
eis 3. Verum ex tris magistratus et imperia, postremo omnis cura rerum publicarum minime mihi hac tempestate6 cupiunda videntur; quoniam neque virtuti honos datur, neque illi, quibus per fraudem is fuit," tuti aut eo magis honestis sunt. Nam vi quidem regere patriam aut parentes, quamquam et
According to the common arrangement of words, it would be alia corporis, alia animi; but Sallust abandons this order just because it is common. For the same reason he prefers alii-pars to aliimalii. Naturam corporis (or animi) sequuntur, 'they follow the nature (that is, they are of the same kind) of body and mind.' Regarding the change of anima into animus, it must be observed that anima is the soul,' the seat and basis of animus (mind), which is the activity of the anima.
2. But the mind is not subject to corruption' (that is, to dissolution and annihilation), for a perfect participle with the negative prefix in frequently denotes a passive impossibility, which is usually expressed by adjectives ending in ilis or bilis; as invictus miles, an invincible soldier.
3. The mind possesses all things, but itself is not possessed;' that is, it is free. This is an imitation of a well-known Greek phrase, έχω, ουκ έχομαι.
Admirari signifies not only to admire,' but also to wonder,' at anything which is surprising or displeasing; and in the latter sense it is the same as mirari.
5 Respecting ceterum as an adversative conjunction, see Zumpt, 0349.
6 Hac tempestate, the same as hoc tempore. Sallust frequently uses tempestas in this sense, though certainly the time which he paints in such dark colours-namely, the period after the murder of Caesar, in B. C. 44-was an agitated and stormy one.
? Who have obtained by fraud an honour or honourable office,' quibus honos contigit.
8 Honestus, “honoured,' or 'honourable;' for honestus (from honor) is both the one who is intrusted with an honourable office, and in general he who is worthy of an honour. The persons here spoken of were honesti in the first, but not in the second sense.
' It might seem doubtful as to whether parentes here means 'obey: ing persons'—that is, subjects of the Roman state-or ‘kinsmen,'
possis et delicta corrigas," tamen importunum est; quum praesertim omnes rerum mutationes caedem, fugam, aliaque hostilia portendant, frustra autem niti, neque aliud se fatigando nisi odium quaerere, extremae dementiae est; nisi fortet quem inhonesta et perniciosa libido tenet, potentiae paucorum decus atque libertatem suam gratificari.
4. Ceterum ex aliis negotiis, quae ingenio exercentur, in primis magno usui est memoria rerum gestarum : cujus de virtute quia multi dixere, praetereundum puto; simul ne per insolentiam? quis existimet memet studium meum laudando extollere. Atque ego credo fore, qui, quia decrevi procul a re publica aetatem agere, tanto tamque utili labori meo nomen inertiae imponant: certe, quibus& maxima industria videtur
relatives.' We believe the latter to be the case, because to control subjects by force was not deemed improper by the ancients. Sallust elsewhere also combines patria et parentes (Catil. 6, Jug. 87), thereby expressing the idea of a free and equal civitas, which is to be convinced, not forced, and to be governed by magistrates chosen by itself, and not by a despotic ruler. The word importunus properly characterises the rudeness and unbearableness of a despot or tyrant.
1. Even if you have the power, and intend to punish actual crimes in the state'-whereby Sallust intimates that a tyrannical government may actually introduce improvements, as history proves to have been the case at all times. The subjunctive is used with quamquam, because the author speaks only of a possibility, and also because an indefinite person is addressed by the second person singular. Compare Zumpt, $ 831, 3.
2 Portendere is here the same as to bring with one's self,' or 'to be followed by.' It is a very sound remark, that by violent changes in a constitution, improvements may indeed be effected, but that at the same time these are accompanied or followed by many acts of injustice and crime.
3 Frustra niti, 'to strive in vain (namely, to effect improvements), if, after all, nothing but hatred is incurred by it, is extremre folly.'
* Nisi forte, 'unless perhaps'-which surely cannot be the case with any sensible man. Respecting this use of nisi forte, express. ing an improbable supposition, see Zumpt, $ 526.
• Libido-gratificari, “the inclination to gratify;' for libido tenet is only a paraphrase for libet. This statement is striking, and but too true, for there are men who think it an honour to sacrifice their own conviction and independence for the purpose of pleasing persons in power.
6. Memoria rerum gestarum, 'the recording of events; that is, the writing of history, the usefulness (virtus) of which is acknowledged.
- The words per insolentiam belong to laudando extollere, and the meaning is, “that no one may believe me to extol my own occupation with excessive praise.' Per insolentiam is the same as insolenter, per expressing manner.
8*At least those to whom it appears to be a lofty occupation,' &c. Respecting the omission of the demonstrative pronoun before the relative, even when they are in different cases, see Zumpt, 0765.