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amicis amicissimos' fecisti; in Hispania nomen familiae renovatum est, postremo, quod difficillimum inter mortales est, gloria invidiam vicisti. Nunc, quoniam mihi natura finem vitae facit, per hanc dexteram, per regni fidemmoneo obtestorque, uti hos, qui tibi genere propinqui, beneficio meo fratres sunt, caros habeas, neu malis alienos adjungere quam sanguine conjunctos retinere. Non exercitus neque thesauri praesidia regni sunt, verum amici, quos neque armis cogere neque auro parare queas; officio et fide pariuntur. Quis autem amicior quam frater fratri ? aut quem alienum fidum invenies, si tuis hostis fueris? Equidem ego vobis regnum trado firmum, si boni eritis; sin mali

, imbecillum. Nam concordia parvae res crescunt, discordia maximae dilabuntur. Ceterum ante hosó te, Jugurtha, qui aetate et sapientia prior es, ne alitur quid eveniat, providere decet. Nam in omni certamine qui opulentior est, etiamsi accipit injuriam, tamen quia plus potest, facere videtur. Vos autem, Adherbal et Hiempsal, colite, observate6 talem hunc virum, imitamini virtutem et enitimini, ne ego meliores liberos sumpsisse videar quam genuisse.

11. Ad ea Jugurtha, tametsi regem ficta locutum intellegebat et ipse longe aliter animo agitabat, tamen pro tempore benigne respondit. Micipsa paucis post diebus moritur. Postquam illi more regio justa magnifice fecerant, reguliin unum convenerunt, ut inter se de cunctis negotiis disceptarent. Sed Hiempsal, qui minimus ex illis erat, natura ferox et jam ante ignobilitatem Jugurthae, quia materno genere impar erat, despiciens, dextera Adherbalem assedit,& ne medius ex tribus,

1 Amicissimos. See Zumpt, $ 410.

2 Per regni fidem, by the conscientiousness which is observed in governing, and must be observed;' so that it is almost the same as per regiam fidem, or per fidem regum, which kings owe to one another.

3 Adjungere; supply tibi, 'connect yourself with strangers,' as opposed to supporting and maintaining friendly relations with his friends and kinsmen.

* Sallust here changes his expression. He might have said parantur, but parere also occurs in other authors in the sense of parare, or to acquire.'

5 Ante hos, in preference to these.'

& Observare has a sense similar to that of colere, 'to honour,' and refers to the observance of all the duties of devotedness, especially in the external relations of social life.

* Reguli may be petty kings with small dominions as well as young kings-that is, princes. We here take the latter to be the meaning.

8 Adherbalem assedit, or Adherbali assedit, he sat himself down at the right-hand side of Adherbal.' See Zumpt, Ø 386, note. There accordingly remained for Jugurtha only the place on the left of Adherbal-that is, the least honourable of the three places.

quod apud Numidas honori ducitur, Jugurtha foret. Dein tamen ut aetati concederet fatigatusi a fratre, vix in partem alteram transductus est. Ibi quum multa de administrando imperio dissererent, Jugurtha inter alias res jacit oportere quinquennii consulta et decreta omnia rescindi; nam per ea tempora confectum annis Micipsam parum animo valuisse. Tum idem Hiempsal placere sibi respondit; nam ipsum illum tribus proximis annis adoptatione in regnum pervenisse. Quod verbum in pectus Jugurthae altius, quam quisquam ratus erat, descendit. Itaque ex eo tempore ira et metu anxius mo. liri, parare atque ea modo cum animo habere, quibus Hiempsal per dolum caperetur. Quae ubi tardius procedunt neque Ienitur animus ferox, statuit quovis modo inceptum perficere.

12. Primo conventu, quem ab regulis factum supra memoravi, propter dissensionem placuerat dividi thesauros finesque imperii singulis constitui. Itaque tempus ad utramque rem decernitur, sed maturius ad pecuniam distribuendam. Reguli interea in loca propinqua thesauris alius alio4 concessere. Sed Hiempsal in oppido Thirmida forte ejus domo utebatur, qui proximus lictoró Jugurthae carus acceptusque ei semper fuerat; quem ille casu ministrum oblatum promissis onerat impellitque, uti tamquam suam visens domum eat, portarum claves adultérinaso paret (nam verae ad Hiem psalem referebantur); ceterum, ubi res postularet, se ipsum cum magna manu venturum. Numida mandata brevi conficit atque, uti doctus erat, noctu Jugurthae milites introducit. Qui postquam in aedes irrupere, diversi regem quaerere, dormientes alios, alios occursantes interficere, scrutari loca abdita, clausa effringere, strepitu et tumultu omnia miscere; quum interim Hiempsal reperitur occultans sese tugurio mulieris ancillae, quo initio

Fatigatus is commonly construed with an ablative, which is here to be supplied (precibus)'; but without such an addition, fatigare signifies to importune a person with prayers and requests.

2. Within the last three years ;' but as the author is here speak. ing of the time at which something happened, it is used instead of ante

triennium, or triennio ante. 3 Cum animo habere, the same as cum, or in animo agitare, volvere, reputare. Here, again, we must attend to the use of habere.

* Alius alio, one in one direction, and the other in another.' See Zumpt, D 289.

Proximus lictor is the one of the lictors who, when they precede the praetors or consuls, walks last, and is therefore nearest to his commander; and this lictor, according to Roman custom, had the highest rank among his fellow-lictors. The customs of the Romans were imitated at the courts of allied princes. & Claves adulterinae, ‘imitation keys.' Respecting the quum in descriptions, where it is commonly pre

by interea, or interim, see Zumpt, $ 580.

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pavidus et ignarus loci perfugerat. Numidae caput ejus, uti jussi erant, ad Jugurtham referunt.

13. Ceterum fama tanti facinoris per omnem Africam brevi divulgatur; Adherbalem omnesque, qui sub imperio Micipsae fuerant, metus invadit; in duas partes discedunt Numidae; plures Adherbalem sequuntur, sed illum alterum bello meliores. Igitur Jugurtha quam maximas potest copias armat, urbes partim vi, alias voluntate imperio suo adjungit, omni Numidiae imperare parat. Adherbal, tametsi Romam legatos miserat, qui senatum docerent de caede fratris et fortunis suis, tamen fretus multitudine militum, parabat armis contendere. Sed ubi res ad certamen venit, victus ex proelio profugit in provinciam? ac deinde Romam contendit. Tum Jugurtha patratis consiliis, postquam omnis Numidiae potiebatur, in otio facinus suum cum animo reputans, timere populum Romanum neque adversus iram ejus usquam nisi in avaritia nobilitatis et pecunia sua spem habere. Itaque paucis diebus3 cum auro et argento multo legatos Romam mittit, quîs praecepit, primum uti veteres amicos muneribus expleant, deinde novos acquirant, postremo quaecunque possint largiundo parare ne cunctentur. Sed ubi Romam legati venere et ex praecepto regis hospitibus aliisque, quorum ea tempestate in senatu auctoritas pollebat, magna munera misere, tanta commutatio incessit, uti ex maxima invidia in gratiam et favorem nobilitatis Jugurtha veniret; quorum pars spe, alii praemio inducti, singulos ex senatu ambiundo4 nitebantur, ne gravius in eum consuleretur. Igitur ubi legati satis confidunt, die constituto senatus utrisque datur. Tum Adherbalem hoc modo locutum accepimus :

14. "Patres conscripti, Micipsa pater meus moriens mihi

· Parat, in the sense of se parat, ‘he prepares himself,' or about;' and thus parare is not unfrequently used by Sallust absolutely in the sense of statuere and instituere.

2 Provincia here is the Roman province of Africa, consisting of the territory of Carthage which had been destroyed, and containing the towns of Leptis, Hadrumetum, Utica, and Carthage, which was gradually rising again as a Roman town. That territory now belongs to the dey of Tunis, a vassal prince of the Turkish sultan. Numidia, in the west of the Roman province, was bounded in the west by the kingdom of Mauretania, and comprised the modern Algeria which is possessed by the French.

* Paucis diebus, within a few days;' that is, a few days after. See Zumpt, v 480.

Singulos ambire, 'to go about addressing individual persons,' has at the same time the meaning of attempting to gain them over by intreaties or promises.'

• That no severe decree might be passed against him,' ne gravius consilium in eum caperetur.

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praecepit, uti regni Numidiae tantummodo procurationem! existimarem meam, ceterum jus et imperium ejus penes vos esse; simul eniterer domi militiaeque quam maximo usui esse populo Romano; vos mihi cognatorum, vos affinium loco ducerem: si ea fecissem, in vestra amicitia exercitum, divitias, munimenta regni me habiturum. Quae quum praecepta parentis mei agitarem, Jugurtha, homo omnium, quos terra sustinet,3 sceleratissimus contempto imperio vestro, Masinissae me nepotem et jam ab stirpe socium atque amicum populi Romani regno fortunisque omnibus expulit. Atque ego, patres conscripti, quoniam eo miseriarum venturus eram, vellem potius ob mea quam ob majorum meorum beneficia posse a vobis auxilium petere, ac maxime deberị mihi beneficia a populo Romano, quibus non egerem ; secundum ea, si desideranda erant, uti debitis uterer. Sed quoniam parum tuta per se ipsa probitas est, neque mihi in manu fuit, Jugurtha qualis foret, ad vos confugi, patres conscripti, quibus, quod mihi misserimum est, cogor prius oneri quam usui esse. Ceteri reges aut bello victi in amicitiam a vobis recepti sunt, aut in suis dubiis rebus societatem vestram appetiverunt; familia nostra cum populo Romano bello Carthaginiensi amicitiam instituit, quo tempore magis fides ejus quam fortuna petenda erat. Quorum progeniem vos, patres conscripti,

· Adherbal says that only the administration of Numidia belongs to him, but that the legal title and supremacy belong to Rome-the language of abject servility, by which he wishes to recommend himself to the protection of the senate.

2 Affines are those connected with one another by marriage, whereas cognati are relations by blood.

3 Sustinere is here the same as ferre.

4. As I was to come to such misery;' that is, as it had been ordained by fate that I should come to such misery. See Zumpt, $ 498.

s Adherbal wishes to be able to solicit the aid of the Romans, in consequence of his own services, rather than those of his ancestors; he then again divides that wish, considering it as most desirable that the Roman people should owe him services without his being in want of them, and next in desirableness that the services which he requires should be performed as services due to him. By this latter sentiment he returns to the point from which he set out-namely, his wish to have done good services (beneficia) to the Romans. Vel. lem in this sentence is followed twice by the accusative with the infinitive (posse, to which me is to be supplied, and beneficia deberi), and then by a clause with ut (uti; that is, ut-uterer). Secundum ea., 'next to,' or .next after this,' according to the etymology of secundum from sequor.

6 In manu fuit, an expression not uncommon in the comic poets; in manu alicujus est, it is in a person's power.'

?At a time when the good fortune of the Romans did not render it so desirable to enter into connection with them as their fidelity and trustworthiness.'

nolite pati me nepotem Masinissael frustra a vobis auxilium petere. Si ad impetrandum nihil causae haberem praeter miserandam fortunam, quod paulo ante rex genere, sama atque copiis potens, nunc deformatus aerumnis, inops, alienas opes expecto, tamen erat majestatis Romani populi? prohibere injuriam neque pati cujusquam regnum per scelus crescere. Verum ego iis finibus ejectus sum, quos majoribus meis populus Romanus dedit, unde pater et avus meus una vobiscum expulere Syphacem et Carthaginienses. Vestra beneficia mihi erepta sunt, patres conscripti

, vos in mea injuria despecti estis. Eheu me miserum! Hucine, Micipsa pater, beneficia tua evasere, ut, quem tu parem cum liberis tuis regnique participem fecisti, is potissimum stirpis tuae extinctor sit? Nunquam ergo familia nostra quieta erit !* semperne in sanguine, ferro, fuga versabimur? Dum Carthaginienses incolumes fuere, jure omnia saeva patiebamur; hostes ab latere, vos amici procul, spes omnis in armis erat. Postquam illa pestis ex Africa ejecta est, laeti pacem agitabamus, quippe quis hostis nullus erat, nisi forte quem vos jussissetis. Ecce autem ex improviso Jugurtha, intoleranda audacia, scelere atque superbia sese efferens, fratre meo atque eodem propinquo suo interfecto, primum regnum ejus sceleris sui praedam fecit, post, ubi me iisdem dolis non quitcapere, nihil minus quam vim aut bellum expectantem in imperio vestro, sicuti videtis, extorrem patria, domo, inopem et

1. Do not allow me in vain to pray for your assistance.' Me in this sentence is accompanied by two accusatives in apposition, first progeniem, and then nepotem Masinissae.

Observe the unusual combination Romani populi for populi Romani, which is to be explained by the fact, that here Romani is the more emphatic word, placing the Roman people in contrast with other nations.

3.0 I, unfortunate man! to what result, father Micipsa, have thy good services led!' For the accusative me miserum, see Zumpt, D 402; and for the double suffix in hucine, s 132.

• Never, then, will our family be at peace!' an exclamation to which afterwards an interrogative sentence with ne is appended. The former also might have been expressed by numquamne ergo, &c.

The subjunctive jussissetis indicates a repeated action. See Zumpt, $ 569. The senate and people of Rome had the right to make war and peace throughout the extent of the Roman dominion, so that the allied nations and kings were obliged to regard those against whom the Romans declared war as their own enemies; as, for example, not long since, the Numantines.

6. Who being a brother, was at the same time a relation.' Re. specting this use of the pronoun idem, when two predicates are added to one subject, see Zumpt, $ 697.

* Non queo; that is, nequeo, or non possum, Extorris (from terra), as exsul from solum, 'homeless.' Re.

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