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INFINITIVE

PRETERITE

help he w

holp

HEOW

hing *

hang, hung held

hold lade lese lie melt mete plat ride ring rise rinne, run

lay malt met plet * rode, rid *

rang, rung rose

ran

see

PARTICIPLE

holpen, holp *
hewn
hung
holden *
loden *, laden
lorn
lien *, lain
molten
meten

ridden, rid
rungen, rung
risen, rose *
ronnen, run

seen

saw, see *
sod *
shook
shope

sodden
shaken, shook *
shapen
shaven
shorn
shewn
shone
shotten *

shore

shone
shot
shof *
shrank, shrunk
sang, sung

seethe
shake
shape
shave
shear
shew
shine
shoot
shove
shrink
sing
singe
sink
sit
slay
slide
sling
slink
slit
smite
speak
spin
spring

sank
sate, sat
slew
slod, slid
slang *, slung
slank
slat, slit
smote
spake, spcke
span
sprang

shrunken, shrunk
sungen, sung
s u n g *
sunken, sunk
sitten
slain
slidden, slid
slung
sluok
slit
smitten
spoken, spoke *
spun
sprungen, sprung

INFINITIVE

PRETERITE

PARTICIPLE

stole
stuck
stong, stung
stank, stunk

steal stick sting stink [STREOGAN] STRICAN, strike stride strike string strive swear swell swim swing take

stolen stuck stongen, stung stonken, stunk strewn striken, stricken * stridden stricken strung striven

STRAC, strake *
strode
struck
strung
strove

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tear

torn

thrive throw tread wake wash

swung
took
tare, tore
throve
threw
trod
woke
wush (Scots)
wex

thriven thrown trodden, trod

washen

wax

waxen *

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268. Remarks on the Forms signed with an Asterisk. a]bidden. We find the simple form in Eger and Grime,

line 555:

He might full well haue bidden att home.

beuk." Allan Ramsay, Gentle Shepherd, act ii. sc. I. bowln. A relic of a forcible word in Saxon poetry, GEBOL

GEN, swollen, generally with anger. It is found in Surrey's Translation of the Second Book of the Aeneid, and there it means physically swollen :

Distained with bloody dust, whose feet were bowln

With the strait cords wherewith they haled him. bid, preterite. Paley, Evidences, ii. 1. § 2. bate. Spenser, Faery Queene, ii. 5, 73

Yet there the steel stayd not, but inly bate

Deepe in his flesh, and opened wide a red floodgate. bote. Eger and Grime, 992. bowne. And now he is bowne to turn home againe.

Eger and Grime, 948. Here also must be put the expression 'Homeward bound'

—though there is a great claim for the Icelandic buinn. 269. carf. And carf biforn his fader at the table

Chaucer, Prologue, 100. coost. Maggie coost her head fu' high,

Looked asklent and unco skeigh,
Gart poor Duncan stand abeigh.

Robert Burns, Duncan Gray.
casten. Genesis xxxi. 36; Numbers xx. 3.
chode. As in the quotation from Surrey, above, 153.
comen. Spenser, Faery Queene, iv. 1. 15, overcommen.
And if thou be comen to fight with that knight.

Eger and Grime, 887. crope, cropen. Chaucer, Canterbury Tales 4257, 11918. crap. Allan Ramsay, Gentle Shepherd, act v. sc. I. drunken. Luke xvii. 8. fell, participle.

Which thou hast perpendicularly fell. King Lear, iv. 6. 54. foughten.

On the foughten field
Michael and his Angels prevalent
Encamping.

Paradise Lost, vi. 410.

6

270. glod. Poem of Genesis and Exodus, 76. Shelley has

'glode. gnew. In Tyndale we find gnew as the preterite of gnaw :

Wherevpon for very payne & tediousnesse he laye downe to slepe, for to put ye comaundement which so gnew & freated his coscience, out of minde; as ye nature of all weked is, whē they haue sinned a good, to seke al meanes with riot, reuel & pastyme, to driue ye remenbraunce of

synne out of their thoughtes.Prologe to Prophete Jonas. gnawn. Shakspeare: 'begnawn with the bots,' Taming of

the Shrew iii. 2. The Saxon form was GNAGEN. graven. Psalm vii. 16, elder version, 'He hath graven and

digged up a pit.' And often 'graven image' in the Bible

of 1611. holp, participle. Shakspeare, Richard II, v. 5. 62. hing. This form occurs in one of the narratives of Dean

Ramsay, who puts it into the mouth of a Scotch judge of the last generation. It is quite common in Scotland to this day.

This verb made an early transit to the weak form, and was conjugated thus-hang, hanged, hanged. Properly speaking, this was a new and quite different verb, and should have had the transitival use, while the strong hing, hang, hung, kept the intransitive function. There are extant traces of the observance of this principle. Thus, nobody says that his hat hanged on a peg. But this early broke rule, and the young weak form hanged, stood for the old strong preterite. Example :

But could not finde what they might do to him: for all the people hanged vpon him when they heard him.Luke xix. 48. Geneva, 1560. 271. holden. Psalm 1xiii. 9 (1539): and eleven times in

the Bible of 1611. loden. Sir Philip Sidney, An Apologie for Poetrie, 1581;

ed. Edward Arber, p. 19. lien. “Though ye have lien among the pots,' Psalm lxviii. 13

(1539). Shakspeare, King John, iv. 1. 50, where the first three folios spell it lyen.

plet. Allan Ramsay, Gentle Shepherd, act ii. sc. 4.

I took delyte
To pou the rashes green, wi roots sae white;
O' which, as weel as my young fancy cou'd,

For thee I plet the flow'ry belt and snood. rid. Spectator, Aug. 24, 1711.

I remember two young fellows who rid in the same squadron of a troop of horse, This form is in present use in Somersetshire and Gloucestershire :

He walked all the way there, Sir: but he rid home again. (Swanswick.) rose, participle.

And I was ta'en for him, and he for me;
And thereupon these ERRORS are arose.

Comedy of Errors, v. 1. 386.
No civil broils have since his death arose.

John Dryden, Oliver Cromwell, see. This preterite is well known as a provincialism. In

Shakspeare's time it was heard high up in the world : Lord Sandys says of the newly fashionable folk

L. San. They have all new legs, and lame ones; one would take it, That neuer see 'em pace before,- Henry VIII, i. 3. 12. 272. sod.

Genesis xxv. 29. shook. The preterite form was much adopted for the par

ticiple from the seventeenth to the early part of the present century. Thus Milton, Paradise Lost, vi. 219 :

All Heaven
Resounded, and had Earth been then, all Earth

Had to her Center shook.
And Samuel Taylor Coleridge:

For oh! big gall-drops, shook from Folly's wing,

Have blackened the fair promise of my spring. shotten. Shakspeare, Henry V, iii. 5. 14.

In that nooke-shotten Ile of Albion.

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