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help he w
hang, hung held
hold lade lese lie melt mete plat ride ring rise rinne, run
lay malt met plet * rode, rid *
rang, rung rose
holpen, holp *
saw, see *
steal stick sting stink [STREOGAN] STRICAN, strike stride strike string strive swear swell swim swing take
stolen stuck stongen, stung stonken, stunk strewn striken, stricken * stridden stricken strung striven
STRAC, strake *
thrive throw tread wake wash
thriven thrown trodden, trod
268. Remarks on the Forms signed with an Asterisk. a]bidden. We find the simple form in Eger and Grime,
He might full well haue bidden att home.
beuk." Allan Ramsay, Gentle Shepherd, act ii. sc. I. bowln. A relic of a forcible word in Saxon poetry, GEBOL
GEN, swollen, generally with anger. It is found in Surrey's Translation of the Second Book of the Aeneid, and there it means physically swollen :
Distained with bloody dust, whose feet were bowln
With the strait cords wherewith they haled him. bid, preterite. Paley, Evidences, ii. 1. § 2. bate. Spenser, Faery Queene, ii. 5, 73
Yet there the steel stayd not, but inly bate
Deepe in his flesh, and opened wide a red floodgate. bote. Eger and Grime, 992. bowne. And now he is bowne to turn home againe.
Eger and Grime, 948. Here also must be put the expression 'Homeward bound'
—though there is a great claim for the Icelandic buinn. 269. carf. And carf biforn his fader at the table
Chaucer, Prologue, 100. coost. Maggie coost her head fu' high,
Looked asklent and unco skeigh,
Robert Burns, Duncan Gray.
Eger and Grime, 887. crope, cropen. Chaucer, Canterbury Tales 4257, 11918. crap. Allan Ramsay, Gentle Shepherd, act v. sc. I. drunken. Luke xvii. 8. fell, participle.
Which thou hast perpendicularly fell. King Lear, iv. 6. 54. foughten.
On the foughten field
Paradise Lost, vi. 410.
270. glod. Poem of Genesis and Exodus, 76. Shelley has
'glode. gnew. In Tyndale we find gnew as the preterite of gnaw :
Wherevpon for very payne & tediousnesse he laye downe to slepe, for to put ye comaundement which so gnew & freated his coscience, out of minde; as ye nature of all weked is, whē they haue sinned a good, to seke al meanes with riot, reuel & pastyme, to driue ye remenbraunce of
synne out of their thoughtes.—Prologe to Prophete Jonas. gnawn. Shakspeare: 'begnawn with the bots,' Taming of
the Shrew iii. 2. The Saxon form was GNAGEN. graven. Psalm vii. 16, elder version, 'He hath graven and
digged up a pit.' And often 'graven image' in the Bible
of 1611. holp, participle. Shakspeare, Richard II, v. 5. 62. hing. This form occurs in one of the narratives of Dean
Ramsay, who puts it into the mouth of a Scotch judge of the last generation. It is quite common in Scotland to this day.
This verb made an early transit to the weak form, and was conjugated thus-hang, hanged, hanged. Properly speaking, this was a new and quite different verb, and should have had the transitival use, while the strong hing, hang, hung, kept the intransitive function. There are extant traces of the observance of this principle. Thus, nobody says that his hat hanged on a peg. But this early broke rule, and the young weak form hanged, stood for the old strong preterite. Example :
But could not finde what they might do to him: for all the people hanged vpon him when they heard him.—Luke xix. 48. Geneva, 1560. 271. holden. Psalm 1xiii. 9 (1539): and eleven times in
the Bible of 1611. loden. Sir Philip Sidney, An Apologie for Poetrie, 1581;
ed. Edward Arber, p. 19. lien. “Though ye have lien among the pots,' Psalm lxviii. 13
(1539). Shakspeare, King John, iv. 1. 50, where the first three folios spell it lyen.
plet. Allan Ramsay, Gentle Shepherd, act ii. sc. 4.
I took delyte
For thee I plet the flow'ry belt and snood. rid. Spectator, Aug. 24, 1711.
I remember two young fellows who rid in the same squadron of a troop of horse, This form is in present use in Somersetshire and Gloucestershire :
He walked all the way there, Sir: but he rid home again. (Swanswick.) rose, participle.
And I was ta'en for him, and he for me;
Comedy of Errors, v. 1. 386.
John Dryden, Oliver Cromwell, see. This preterite is well known as a provincialism. In
Shakspeare's time it was heard high up in the world : Lord Sandys says of the newly fashionable folk
L. San. They have all new legs, and lame ones; one would take it, That neuer see 'em pace before,- Henry VIII, i. 3. 12. 272. sod.
Genesis xxv. 29. shook. The preterite form was much adopted for the par
ticiple from the seventeenth to the early part of the present century. Thus Milton, Paradise Lost, vi. 219 :
Had to her Center shook.
For oh! big gall-drops, shook from Folly's wing,
Have blackened the fair promise of my spring. shotten. Shakspeare, Henry V, iii. 5. 14.
In that nooke-shotten Ile of Albion.