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But come thou Goddess fair and free,
In Heaven ycleap'a Euphrosyne. Id. L'Allegro.

What needs my Shakespear for his honour'd Bones,
The labour of an age in piled Stones,
Or that his hallow'd reliques should be hid,

Under a Star-ypointing Pyramid ? Id. On Shakespear, 1630. It also appears as i and e; as iwis A.S. gewis gewiß 256, enow, enough, A.S. genoh genug.

in-:-income, inland, inmale, inroad, insight, instep, inward.

mis-. A Gothic prefix of wide area, found in a large number of Saxon compounds; now greatly reduced, but with a few compensations :- misbehave, miscall, miscarry, misdeem, misgiring, misgovernment, mislay, mislead, mislike, mismanagement, missent, mistake, mistrust. Carried by the Franks into Gaul, it lives in modern French, and by that road we have received misadventure, mischief, miscreant, misnomer, misuse, and the imperfectly naturalised mésalliance.

of-, off-:-offal, offset, offshoot, offscouring, offspring.

out-:-outdo, outgoing, outlaw, output a great output of coal,' outrun, outset, outshine, outstrip, outwork, outward. Not outrage; which is a French substantive in -age 335, based upon outre beyond, Old French oltre, Latin ultra. The Italian form is oltraggio.

over-:-overbearing, overcoat, overcome, overdrive, overflow, overlook, over much, overthwart, overturn, overwork.

thorough-:- thoroughfare, thoroughgoing.

to-:- toward, to-brake Judges ix. 53, Luther zerbrac). In Saxon there was a good list of these.

The pot to-brekith, and farwel al is go.

The Chanones Yemannes Tale, Preamble.

un- :-unlawful, unlikely, unwilling. In German this prefix goes only with substantives and adjectives, as Unkraut weed, ungut bad. But in English it -combines very freely with verbs also. 307. This is one of the few Saxon prefixes that have entered freely into composition with Roman words, as unhesitating, unjust, unmitigated, unscrupulous.

under-:undergo, underhand, understand, undertake. up-:-upland, uplong, upon, upright, upset, upshot, upward. well-:-well-beloved, welcome, well-wisher. with-:-withdraw, withhold, withstand.

606 b. In the French list the most important is that which comes first in alphabetical order. The particle a as a prefix may in some cases be an altered of, as in adown, which may be explained from the Saxon of dúne; or an altered on, as about from Saxon onbutan, asleep from Saxon on slæpe. But in the bulk this prefix is to be identified with the French preposition à, Latin ad: and even in the alterations from the Saxon, this French preposition has been influential : abed, afar, afield, afoot, ajar, akin, along, aloud, aright, astir, athwart, away.

And with his troupes doth march amaine to London.

3 Henry VI, iv. 8. 4. This is a favourite strain of words in the seafaring life, as aback, abaft, aboard, afloat, aground, ahead, ahoy, aloft, alongside, aloof, alow, ashore, astern.

alow, aloft.
Stunsails alow and aloft! said he,
As soon as the foe he saw.

John Harrison, Three Ballads. counter- (French contre against):-counteract, counterfeit, countermove, counter-reformation, counter-revolution. Altered form-country-dance, French contre-danse.

en- and em-:- embalm, enact, encamp, endeavour, enfranchise, engender, enjoy, enlighten, enlist, enquire, ensample, ensue, enthrall, entice, entire.

pur- (French pour) :-purchase, purlieu, purloin, purport, pursue, pursuivant, purtenance, purvey.

606 c. The Latin composites of this class have largely displaced the Saxon ones, and absorbed those of French derival. An Fattached to a word indicates its French complexion. In some instances the particles have been so thoroughly domesticated, that they have formed new homemade combinations.

a-, ab-, or abs-, (from) :-- avert, abrogate, abs-tain. ad- (to) adapt, adequate, adherent, admit, advert.

ante- and anti- (before) Santecedent, antechapel, antediluvian, ante-room, anticipate.

circum- (around) :-circumference, circumlocution, circumnavigate, circumspect, circumstance (F).

con- and co- (with): ---consonant, coeval, company (F), contemporary.

contra- and contro- (against): --contradict, controversy.

de- (from) :—deject, descend, despair (F.) Home-made deodorize.

dis- has the notion of undoing, scattering hither and thither; sometimes of mere separation or subtraction :-disadvantage (F), discount (F), discredit, disdain (F), dissent, disturb. This prefix has sometimes displaced the Saxon mis-, as in dislike for mislike. Spenser reduces this dis- to s- by an Italian imitation, and hence such forms as sdeigned (Faery Queene, iii. 1. 40, 55), spight.

e- or ex- (from, out of):-eject, elude, expect. Prefixed to titles it designates persons who have recently quitted office, as Ex-Chancellor, Ex-Mayor.


in- or im- (in) :-inject, inoculate, insert, inspect, intrude ; imbue, impoverish, improve.

inter- (between):-international, interview (F).

ob- or op- (against, facing you) :-object, obloquy, oppose, obstacle, obverse.

per- (through) :-perceive (F), perquisite, permanent. post- (after) :-postpone, postscript.

præ-, only in its French form pre- (before, beforehand, forward) precede, predestinate, prefer, prejudice, premature.

pro- (forward, for) :-promontory, pronounce, proportion, protest.

re- and red- begins in the idea of reverse or reciprocal action, but it has acquired a signification so vague that explanation is hopeless, and the shades of its meaning are now so familiar to us that it speaks for itself. And indeed it has so completely established itself in English, as to have extinguished almost every other means of expressing the same notion. It is a fine example of the versatility of these highly symbolised ingredients and of the hold which they may get on the aggregate mind :-rebel, rebut (F), receive (F), reedify, refer, regard (F), red-integrate, reject, rejoinder (F), relate, remark (F), renown (F), repent (F), request (F), resemble (F), return (F), reunion (F), revisit, revenge (F), review (F), revolve, redundant, reward (F). Home-made react, reagent, recall, re-elect, re-invest.

sub- (under) subaqueous, subdivide, subject, subordinate. Home-made subcommittee, subway.

trans- (across) : trans-atlantic, transform, transmit, transpose.

ultra- (beyond) :- ultramontane, ultra-radical.

806 d. The Greek examples are largely concerned with literary and scientific terminology, and are for the most part common to the European languages.

anti- (opposite) :anticlinal (Geology), antidote, antipathy, antipodes, antithesis, antitype.

apo- (from), apocalypse, apocrypha, apogee (Astronomy), apology, apostrophe.

auto- (self) :- autobiography, autocrat, autograph, automatic, autonomous, autopsy.

epi- (in addition to) :-epicycle (Astronomy), epidemic, epidermis (Anatomy), epigram, epilogue, epilaph, epitome.

mono- (one) :monogram, monograph, monologue, monopoly, monosyllable, monotony.

para- (beside, against) :-paradox, paraphrase, parasite, parasol.

peri- (around):-periphery, periphrasis, perigee (Astronomy), perihelion (Astronomy).

poly- (many) polygamy, polyglot, polygon, polysyllabic, polytechnic, polytheism.

pro- (before) :-programme (F), prolegomena, prologue, prophesy.

pseudo-(false-, sham-, nominal-, unreal-) :-pseudo-martyr, pseudo-philosophy.


There is perhaps no kind of caste-feeling more hateful than the selfglorifying arrogance of a pseudo-erudition.-F. W. Farrar, The Life, i. 424.

syn- and sym- (with):-synclinal (Geology), sympathy, syntax, and by assimilation of n to l, syllogism.


607. The Compounds may be said to hold up as it were a mirror to the history of a language, and to preserve a reminiscence of each successive structure;-and it is as a


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