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and !,.santure of the language ; and, even after he is to prepared, he will find abundance of difficulty still behind: for the liberty taken of departing from the lerter of the Latin, in order to make the English fryouth and elegant, frequently renders the version: either fo general or figurative, as leaves the learner much in the dark, nay, often altogether at a loss, as. to the proper import of the Latin expreffion: and a little experience will convince any one, that a translation of this kind cannot be near fo helpful to a learn er as a literal one will.
For in a literal tranflation, the Latin is renderedi word for word into the English, or the fense and! meaning of every word in the original is exprefledi in the translation, and it must be much eafier for a boy, or any body else, to come at the meaning of a. Latin author by such a help as this, than by one of the former kind. We have feveral free tranflations of Salluft, but none that I know of has ever attempted a literal one, Whether this be owing to an apprehenfion, that a literal version is a drefs too: mean and sordid for such a great historian, or to the difficulty of the task, for difficult it is, as any one, by trying to translate but two or three chapters in this manner, will soon be convinced; or whether it has been thought, that Salluft was not to be readi by boys till they had gone through a good many other authors, and acquired a confiderable skill in the language, and that then a free translation would ferve their purpose : which of all thefe, or whether any of them, be the true reason why we have not hitherto had a literal translation of this author, I shall not pretend to determine. But as he is an author commonly taught in schools, I cannot but think it a piece of good service done the public, to accommodate him, as much as possible, to the capacity of youth : and it is with this view I have made out the following translation ; which is not, I acknowledge,
precisely or strictly literal in every sentence: and in deed it was impossible it could be fo; for the Latin in diom differs so widely from the English, and particularly in Salluft, whose Latin is truly pure and claffical, that a great many sentences cannot be translated literally, and at the same time such a measure of justness and propriety in the style preserved, as the English may bear a reading, and not appear absolutely Itiff and barbarous. I may however affirm, that it is more literal, and confequently better adapted to the use of learners, than any translation of Salluft yet published : and in this I am supported by the teftimony of several gentlemen of skill and judgment, who took the trouble to examine it carefully, and to whom I am obliged for several amendments. Sometimes, to render the sense more clear, or the English more smooth, I found it convenient to infert words in the translation that have none to answer them in the Latin ; and these are in a different character.
Besides what I have already observed, there is another confideration that makes a new translation of Sallust necessary; and that is, all the translations hitherto published, are done from very faulty and incorrect editions of the Latin. Salluft has suffered prodigiously, and has been strangely abused, through the ignorance and carelessness of commentators and transcribers, The blunders and corruptions that have crept into the text are very numerous, and several of them very grofs, and different too in different copies; insomuch that, if you compare two copies of different editions, you will find very few chapters exactly agree. These corruptions in the original must of course occasion blemishes and imperfections in the translations formed from them; and as several of the false readings in the Latin are such as scarcely admit of any consistent meaning, one may observe them flurred over in the translations in such a superficial manner, as plainly discovers the translators had been
puzzled what to make of them. And if two translations be compared together, they will be found to differ in many places as to the very fenfe ; which no doubt is owing chiefly to the different readings in the Latin copies from which the translators made their versions. But as the learned, judicious, and accurate Gottlieb Cortius, by comparing a great many of the oldest manuscripts with one another, has lately, with immense labour and pains, furnished the world. with 2 correct edition of the Latin, the following translation is done from it; which, as it is a great, so it is a peculiar advantage.
And as Cortius has not only restored the writings: of Sallust in a great measure to their original purity, by clearing them of many fpurious interpolations, and other corruptions, with which for several ages they had been sullied and deformed, but has also illustrated and adorned them by a great many judicious comments and explications; I have thought proper to cull out the most material and useful of them, and have added a few more collected from other writers, which will, in my opinion, contribute greatly to a right understanding of Sallust. And here the reader is desired to notice, that all the Latin notes, except a very few that have their authors quoted, are taken from Cortius ; the English notes are partly gathered from him, and partly made out from other authors. The reader will perhaps with that all the notes had been in English ; and this at first indeed was my de. iign: but I found that fome few of them would not appear in an English dress with the fame advantage they do in Latin ; the rest, which make by far the greatest number, are adduced purely to show, that I have translated Sallust in the same sense in which the learned Cortius understood him. In both these cases therefore I dropt my first intention ; and as all the Latin notes come under one or other of these
heads, I hope the reasons given will be looked upon as a sufficient apology for their being in Latin.
In some few. editions the Jugurthine War is placed before the Catilinarian ; which the editors have no doubt done purely out of regard to the order of time in which they happened: for the war with Jugurtha broke out about thirty-three years after the destruc. tion of Carthage, and in the year of Rome 641; whereas Catiline's Conspiracy happened not till fifty years after, in the consulship of Cicero, and.year of Rome 691. However, in most editions Catiline's Conspiracy, is placed first, as having been first written by the author, which appears from what is faid in the fourth chapter; and this is the order I have. followed.
The orthographiy or spelling, in a good many words of the following Latin, besides those taken notice of in the notes, is a little different from that which obtains in the cômmon editions of Sallust.. This the reader must look upon not as casual, but as the consequence of their being conformed by Cortius to the most ancient and authentic manuscripts. And this edition has with such care been adjusted to that of Cortius, not only in this, but in all other refpects, that, I hope, it shall be found to want nothing of the accuracy of that excellent pattern. And in some few things, I may say, it is more perfect and correct: for the ablatives of the first declension, and other doubtful cases, are here ascertained, by having their proper mark placed over the final vowel, or the vowel of the final fyllable; and such adverbs as are of an ambiguous nature, or which a tyro may be ready to take for adjectives or other parts of Speech, have the mark of the adverb. fuper-inscribed. Again, several typographical escapes or other. blunders have crept into Cortius's edition, which are not taken notice of amongst his Errata : these are here rectified from the authority of his notes; as the
reader may fee, Cat. cap. xviii. n. 2. Jug. cap, xli. n. 2. cap. lxxxvii. n. 2. cap. xcvii. n. 5. cap. cii. n. 2.
Encouraged by the favourable reception the following performance met with, on its first publication, and especially by the approbation some gentlemen of skill have on different occasions been pleased to express, I have with great care revised the whole. Some typographical mistakes, that had escaped obfervation in the first edition, are now rectified; feveral new notes are added, and some expressions in the translation altered; and nothing is omitted or neglected that I could think had a tendency to improve the book, or render it more useful and acceptable to the reader.
I shall conclude by observing, that at Leipfick, where Cortius's Sallust was printed, and in other places of Germany, and in Holland too, they use two kinds of points: the one, called pun£tum majufculum, or the great point, is affixed to the end of a complete or perfect sentence, being the same as the point or punctum used in Britain and France, and is always followed by a capital ; the other, called punctum minusculum, or the little point, is a kind of middle interpunction betwixt the great point and the colon or semicolon, its strength or force being less than that of the great point, and somewhat greater than those of the other two, and is known by the word following, which always begins with a small letter, and never with a capital. This little point, for the sake of uniformity in the text and verfion, is adopted in the translation.