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1. 35. Hasdrubal himself married a Spanish wife.
41. Eo fuit habitu, &c., ' such was the expression of his face, that he even seemed to smile, for joy drowned all sense of pain.'
46. Saguntum, a colony from Zacynthús. Its modern name Murviedro (Muri veteres) attests the extent of its ruins.
Mediis. Though Saguntum is some way south of the Ebro, the Carthaginian Empire did not extend to that river.
2. 1. Missus. He seems to have returned to Carthage after his father's death, and to have been summoned back to Spain about three years before the death of Hasdrubal.
5. Pater, “the memory of his father.'
15. Cibi potionisque, &c., 'he limited his eating and drinking by the requirements of nature, and not the suggestions of appetite.'
18. ea, sc. quies, 'that slumber was not wooed,' &c.
24. This picture of Hannibal is coloured by national enmity, and we must remember that the bulk of his own countrymen were jealous and hostile. From them Livy may have drawn the charge of perfidy ; that of cruelty comes from Roman sources. Hannibal was unscrupulous, but not naturally cruel ; compared with the great body of his countrymen he may even be considered humane. He had the passion of an oriental for intrigue, and delighted in stratagem and unexpected manæuvres, and it was only when the Romans learnt to fight him with his own weapons that they were able to make head against him.
3. An embassy had been sent to Hannibal requiring him to desist from the siege of Saguntum, with orders to proceed to Carthage if he persisted and demand his surrender. Hannibal refused to receive them, and on their arrival at Carthage they were admitted to an audience with the senate.
Hanno supports the unpopular course of peace.
1. Hanno, the leader of the.anti-Barcine party, was obliged to submit to the superior genius of Hamilcar in the African War, which he had mismanaged, and inveterate in his animosity towards Hannibal.
Senatum. The yepnuola consisted of 30 members, two of whom were styled Suffetes (Shophetim, the Judges of the Old Testament.) But the real power at Carthage was in the hands of a body of men originally intended to act as jurymen, and bring offending generals and senators to justice, but who, like the Ephors at Sparta, contrived to make themselves supreme in the state. Their number was 104.
3. 9. Hanno about 350, B. C. had made the attempt and failed. Carthage never fell into the hands of a despot.
19. Jus gentium. The Roman in dealing with an immigrant, whom he would not admit to the privileges of a citizen, and consequently to a participation in the ‘jus civile,’ invented from observation of neighbouring states a “jus gentium' to regulate his dealings with such strangers. This was the primary meaning of the term, but when the Greek civilization penetrated into Rome and brought with it broader conceptions of a natural law, the “jus gentium' was gradually fused with this, and gained a dignity and importance which it had not, when the Romans dealt it out coldly to an alien. It is not however to be translated international law,' jus suffetiale, it signifies here the natural rights with which human beings individually or aggregated in states are by common consent of mankind invested.
21. Ut publica fraus absit, as a proof that the crime is not a national one.'
24. The battle at the Ægates Insulæ was fought B. C. 241. Hamilcar garrisoned Eryx, and the Carthaginian admiral Hanno was anxious to take his veterans on board, before attacking the Romans. Catulus who commanded the Roman fleet intercepted Hanno in front of Drepanum, and forced an engagement in which he was completely victorious.
27. Ut isti volunt, 'as your party will have it.'
28. Tarento. The Romans had made a treaty with the Carthaginians, by which the former were bound not to interfere in Sicily, the latter in Italy. After Pyrrhus had retired from Italy, his officer, Milo, still held the citadel of Tarentum. He made himself so unpopular with the towns-people, that they applied for help to Carthage, despairing of clemency at the hands of the Romans, who were then besieging the town. Accordingly a fleet was sent from Carthage, and appeared in the harbour. This determined Papirius Cursor, the Roman general, to give Milo easy terms, and so hasten the surrender of the city. The action of Carthage in this matter was made an excuse for the interference of Rome in the case of the Mamertines, which brought on the First Punic War.
30. Id de quo verbis ambigebatur, ' as regards the point at issue.'
4. 7. Trepidarent, were too much agitated to deliberate.'
8. Nam neque. See Ex. I. 20. 10. Sardos. See Ex. I. 19.
Corsos. Corsica was attacked by a Roman squadron under L. Scipio, B. C. 259, the city Aleria taken, and the inhabitants compelled to acknowledge the sovereignty of Rome and give hostages; but their submission was little more than nominal.
11. Histros atque Illyrios. These wars were undertaken chiefly for the suppression of piracy. See the articles • Teuta’ and · Demetrius of Pharos' ir the Classical Dictionary.
4. 12. Cam Gallis. These were the Boii and Insubres inhabiting Gallia Cisalpina aided by Celtic tribes from beyond the Alps called Gæsatæ.
The war lasted from B. C. 225—222. It was brought to a close by the victory of Marcellus at Clastidium.
Tumulatom. Cicero says that the Romans called a war in Italy 'tumultus' because it was domesticus,' and also a war with the Gauls, because it was • Italiæ finitimus;' but, he adds, they applied the word to no other war. Livy, however, applies it to disturbances in Histria and Sardinia.
5. 1. Legati. The same men who had extracted from the Carthaginian senate the declaration of war. Q. Fabius Buteo headed the embassy.
12. Meritum, supply 'talem.'
19. Massiliam. This old Greek colony, founded by the Phocæans about B. C. 600, was the steadfast ally of Rome throughout the war. It maintained its independence against the Ligurians till B. C. 154, when it was forced to appeal to Rome for aid. This led to the establishment of the Provincia,' and the Massiliots had their share of the spoil. In the civil war they shut their gates against Cæsar, and supported the Senatorial party. After a gallant defence the city was taken, and its effigy was carried in Cæsar's triumphal procession. Cicero (Phil. VI. 8) speaks of it as “the city without which our ancestors never triumphed over the Transalpine Gauls," and speaks of the grief and indignation of the Romans at the indignity offered it. Even after its conquest it still remained a “libera' or 'fæderata civitas.'
26. The consuls were P. Cornelius Scipio, whose province was Spain, and C. Sempronius Blæsus, whose province was Sicily. Besides this the prætor L. Manlius Vulso was stationed in Cisalpine Gaul with a third army.
6. 1. Gadibus. Hannibal went there before starting on his campaign, to sacrifice in the temple of Melcarth, whom the Romans identified with Hercules.
Carthaginem. Nova Carthago founded by Hasdrubal, the great arsenal of the Carthaginians.
3. Cicero (de Div. I. 24) narrates this dream, and quotes as his authority for the story Silenus, a Greek historian, who wrote a work called Elkedikú, and described very fully the life and deeds of Hannibal. Cælius the Roman historian borrowed from him.
7. Cura, here means 'curiosity.'
7. Hannibal started on his march late in the spring of the year B. C. 218: he crossed the Iberus and the Pyrenees unopposed, and advanced to the Rhone through friendly tribes. Beyond the river, the influence of the Massiliots was sirong, and the consul Scipio had landed with a large force to intercept his
Ex. Line. passage. Hannibal crossed the Rhone somewhere near Avignon in the face of the Gauls, aided by a detachment, which he had sent over by a ford higher up the river to fall on the rear of the enemy in the heat of the engagement. His skirmishers fell in with some Gaulish cavalry and were worsted, but when Scipio arrived, Hannibal was three day's march distant, and pursuit was useless. He therefore returned to Massilia, and dispatched his troops to Spain under his brother Cneius, while he himself returned to Italy to meet the invader in the valley of the Po. Hannibal marched up the left bank of the Rhone to its junction with the Isère, crossed this stream, and still following the course of the Rhone for some little distance, struck off to the right, and rejoined the Isère in the neighbourhood of Grenoble. The speech here put in Hannibal's mouth is supposed to be spoken on the banks of the Rhone.
. 2. Varie, &c., "he works on the soldiers' mind by alternately reproaching and encouraging them.' Observe how nearly the gerund corresponds to a present participle, the sense it has retained in modern Italian.
7. Amplectantur. The present conj. is here used, because the sentence is purely adjectival.
9. Dedi. “Postulo' usually is followed by "ut.' It occurs in Plautus and Terence with the infinitive but not quite in this sense. So me ducere istis verlis postulas ? do you expect to influence me?' Servire postulare, “to want to be a slave.'
12. Quum ab occasu, &r., 'when they were starting on a march from west to east. A rhetorical phrase denoting the vastness of their aims, when they began the campaign.
18. Subsistere. The infinitive of indignation or surprise.
23. Eos ipsos. These were some envoys from the Cisalpine Gauls, who offered to be his guides into Italy.
31. Exhaustum esse. This infinitive is akin to that noticed above ; it is frequently found in 'obliqua oratio,' where the question is purely rhetorical, and does not ask for information.
32. Quicquam, not · aliquid ' because the question implies a negative.
34. Cederent-sperent. This change of tense occurs because the first is a single action, the second a continuous one.
36. Interjacentem, a Livian word.
8. 1. Druentia. This is the modern Durance. It will be seen on reference to an Atlas that this river is quite out of Hannibal's route, if we suppose him to be marching parallel with and north of the Isère. The difficulties of Livy's narrative are insurmountable. It is nearly certain that Hannibal crossed the Little Mt. Cenis passing up the Val de Maurienne, and then passing over the Col de Clapier which just overlooks Susa. The Durance valley would lead him to Alpis Cottia (M. Genève) or to Vesulus (Monte Viso.)
4. Præcepta, sc. animo, they had been forwarned.'
6. Torrida. A word rarely used of extreme cold; but look out "uro' and 'aduro.'
10. Insidentes, governs 'imminentes tumulos.'
37. Transversis rupibus, 'the cliffs lying across the route.' The text is due to Madvig ; the MSS. read perversis rupibus juxta.'
41. Quam, belongs to 'plus 'not to 'prius.'
42. Maxime-faciebant, added to the dangers of the march,' perhaps we should read 'primus,' the 'quam’ following so closely may have led to the alteration.
47. Turba='the confusion.'
Ut inter montanos, 'considering they were mountaineers.'
78. The position of sollicitus ’ is remarkable. It illustrates the tendency to avoid the adverbial form.
84. Accipienda clades fuerit, ' they must have sustained loss.'
97. Daret. This subjunctive is common in Livy but rare in Cicero. Adverbs signifying repeated action are usually followed by the indicative, but see below, ' quacunque incederent,'«ubi fides iis non esset.'
98. Sicut—ita, 'though-yet. Compare l. 122, below.
109. Vergiliæ. The Pleiads set soon after the beginning of November. • Vergiliæ ’ is derived from ‘vergo,' perhaps because the Pleiads always appear sloping towards the horizon.
117. Summum, ' at the most.' 125. Hærere afixi, ‘to support themselves firmly,' the MSS. read afflicti.'
128. Tentabundus, “feeling his way. These adjectives were originally gerundives, they are frequentative in sense, and more common in later writers.
131. Mille admodum, “fully a thousand.' Polybius says that the land-slip was a stadium and a half in length, (rather less than 1000 feet,) which Livy has misunderstood and inserted the absurd exaggeration of the text.
149. In connitendo, 'in the effort to rise.'
156. Trees of immense size are hardly compatible with the 'nuda cacumina' mentioned just below. 158. This famous story is alluded to in Jurenal, Sat. X. 152--3,
"Opposuit natura Alpemque nivemque,