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1. Before translating, every sentence should be read over till it can be read correctly and with ease, special attention being paid to the quantity and pronunciation.

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Quantity. 1 The short vowels ε, o, should always be pronounced short.

2. The long vowels n, o, and the diphthongs, should always be pronounced long.

3. The doubtful vowels a, b, v, before a vowel or diph thong, or the consonants », Q, s, final, and in the end of a word are generally short.-In other positions they are sometimes long, and sometimes short.

4. A contracted or circumflected syllable is always long.

5. Any vowel before two consonants, not a mute and a liquid, is long.

Accents. 2. According to the mode of pronouncing Greek generally adopted, whether Erasmian or English, no attention is paid to the Greek accents. These, it is manifest, had nothing to do with the quantity or length of syllables, but only, as it is supposed, with the rising and falling of the tone—a use which could be properly learned only from the living voice. In pronouncing Greek, however, as well as Latin or English, we naturally lay a greater stress of voice on a particular syllable. In doing so, care should be taken, when it falls on a short syllable, that

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A Greek idiom, strictly speaking, is a mode of speech peculiar to the Greek language. The term is bere used in a more extended sense, to denote a mode of speech different from the English, or which, if rendered word foç word, and with the ordinary signs of cases, moods, lenses, &c., would not make a correc: English sentence.

the proper quantity be not thereby altered. Th.s stress of voice, or what we call accent, according to our usage, is regulated by the following

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RULES. 1. In words of two syllables place the accent or stress of voice on the first; as, t7'-un, -vos.

'. 2. In polysyllables, if the penult is long, accent it; it short, accent the antepenult; thus, uripwrzos, àsyoʻ-uerw, (with the Greek accents, written άνθρωπος, λεγομένω.)

Note.- The modern Greeks, and those who follow them in the prouunciation of the ancient Greek, make a short vowel equal in length to a long one, and the stress of voice is always laid on the accented syllable. For the Greek accents, see Gr. § 206.

3. Before translating, the words are to be arranged in the order of construction in the same manner as in Latin, See Lat. Gr. § 152. In order to arrange and translate with ease, it is necessary to be familiar with the different cases, genders, and numbers of nouns, adjectives, and pronouns, and the moods, tenses, numbers, and persons of verbs; and to be able to distinguish them readily and accurately; and also to have a thorough knowledge of the grammatical construction or dependence of words on one another, and of the method of rendering the idiomatic forms of speech into good English. All this can be acquired only by patient, persevering study, and constant drilling on the principles of grammar,-an exercise which should be kept up till the utmost readiness is attained.

4. The English prepositions used in translating the
different cases, in Greek as well as Latin, may be called
signs of those cases. The signs of the cases in Greek
are as follows:
Nom. (No sign.)

Acc. (No sign.)
Gen. Of, from.

Voc. O, or no sign.
Dat. To, for, with, by.
In certain constructions the idiom of the English lan-
guage requires the oblique cases to be translated in a
way different from the above. The chief of these are
the following:

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The Genitive. 5. The genitive, in certain constructions, is translated as follows: 1 After the comparative, without a conjunction, § 143, R. XI.,

than; as, yauxion péditos, sweeter than honey. 2 After words signifying, to be or belong to, § 144, R. XII., to; as,

TO û Baoidóws éori, it belongs to the king. 3 After verbs of filling, abounding, separating, &c., § 144, R. XVI.,

with, in, from, &c.; as, xqvo o vnncúofw vsa, let him fill bis

ship with gold ;- europei xonu átwv, he abounds in riches. 4 Denoting price, R. XVIII.--cause, $ 156, for, on account of, &c.;

as, πέντε δραχμών, for five drachme. 5 Denoting source, origin, or point from which a thing is or pro

ceede, from ; as, ήκουσα του αγγέλλου ταύτα, Ιheard these

things from the messenger. 6 Denoting respect wherein, § 157, with, with respect to, in respect of.

The Dative. 6. The dative in certain constructions is translated as follows: 1 Denoting the doer, after passive verbs, and the verbals tós and

Tóos, by, § 154, R. XXX., and § 147, R. I. & II. ; as, tenoin-

it has been done by me. 2 After nouns, $ 146, and § 148, Obs. 1, of, as, Toldo oi naides,

the children of Tellus. 3 After verbs denoting companionship, § 148, R. XXIII., with;

as, ouiles rois ayafois, associate with the good. 4 Denoting respect wherein, R. XXXIII. II., with respect to, in

respect of. 5 Denoting manner, in ; instrument, with, $ 158. 6 Denoting the place where, at, 159; as, Magatavo, as

Marathon. 7 Denoting the time when, on, § 160; as, tpien u ég?, on the

third day.

8 Denoting the measure of excess, R. XXXIX., by; as, tvor AUTỚ tpeopútepos, older by a year.

The Accusative. 7. The accusative is commonly translated without a


sigr ; but,

1 After verbs of asking, concealing, depriving, the accusative of .

the remote object is translated by from, R. XXIX. ;-of cloth,

ing-with-of doing-to. 2 Denoting respect wherein, § 157, Obs. 1; in, of, as to, in respect of

Genitive and Dative without Signs. 8. The genitive and dative are translated without a sign: 1 When the governing verb is translated by a transitive verb in

English; aş,

1st. Gen. auélei tv qulov, he neglects his friends.
2d. δεόμεθα χρημάτων, we need money.
3d. Dat. Baoide i npétel, it becomes a king.
4th, agńsovoi ró181, they will defend the city.

neifov rois vóuous, obey the laws. 2 When governed by a preposition; as, anò tñs rólews, from

the city; évti Agiç, in Asia. 3 Without a governing word, in the case absolute, $ 178; as, Kú

ρου βασιλεύοντος, Cyrus reigning; περιϊόντι ενιαυτώ, α year having elapsed.

5th. 6

Nouns in Apposition. 9. Nouns in apposition ($129, R. I.) must be brought as near together as possible, and the sign of the case, when used, prefixed to the first only: as, I Παΐλος απόστολος,

Paul, an apostle. 2 Σωκράτου του φιλοσόφου, of Socrates, the philosopher. 3 Θεώ κριτή,

To God, the judge. Obs. The noun in apposition is often in English connected with the preceding noun or pronoun by as, being, &c.; as, 4 Πέμψαι τινά κατάσκοπος, To send some one as a spy.

10. Possessive pronouns and possessive adjectives having a substantive in apposition, ( 129, Obs. 2,3,) or an adjective limiting it, ($ 133, 17,) should be rendered as the genitive of the substantive noun or pronoun from which they are derived; as, 1'Eμός του αθλίου βίος, The life of me, the wretched


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