Immagini della pagina
PDF
ePub
[blocks in formation]

GAUL, HISTORY OF THE MILITARY ART IN
CAESAR'S COMMENTARIES; SPECIAL VOCABULARIES
ON THE INDUCTIVE PLAN; HISTORICAL AND GRAMMATICAL
NOTES, A GENERAL REFERENCE VOCABULARY, AND AN INDEX

BY

C. M. LOWE, Ph. D.

HEIDELBERG UNIVERSITY

AND

J. T. EWING, M. A.

ALMA COLLEGE

THE TEXT OF KRANER.

CHICAGO
SCOTT, FORESMAN & COMPANY

1899

[merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

HANI STAVI JUNIOR UNIVER

PREFACE.

The Commentaries of Caesar are widely used as the best introduction to the study of classical Latin. The purity and simplicity of the diction and the importance of the subject matter justify this usage. This new edition has been prepared to meet the student's needs in attaining a thorough knowledge of the principles of the Latin language and a familiarity with Caesar's writings commensurate with their great historical and literary importance.

The vocabularies, notes, illustrations and explanatory matter have been placed on the same page with the text, thus saving the student's time, which is uselessly spent in turning leaves and searching for explanations which are here placed immediately before him. At the same time, self reliance is secured by the use of a separate text in the class room, without either notes or vocibulary. The special vocabularies have been arranged so that the first four books and the rest of the annotated text may be read consecutively, or the war with Ariovistus (Bk. I. chaps. 30-54) may be omitted and the valuable, and less familiar, matter substituted from the annotated chapters of Bks. V-VII. An opportunity for sight reading is afforded in the unannotated parts of these latter books.

To insure correct pronunciation the quantity of all long vowels has been marked throughout the text, notes, and vocabularies. In this we have followed the exceptionally correct and complete marking of Lewis' Elementary Latin Dictionary. This plan has been adopted at the suggestion of Dr. W. G. Hale of Chicago University, who has inaugurated this system, so helpful to Latin students in acquiring a correct pronunciation.

The application of the inductive method to the notes with the system of references adopted has enabled us to furnish a constant review of necessary facts and principles without unduly increasing the size of the book.

The text of Kraner is given without alteration as it seems better to present the exact results of the ablest textual critic of the commentaries, free from the preferences and prejudices which mark certain collated texts.

87027

3 too Pub. gift.

The special vocabularies, based on the lexicons of Lewis, Harper, and Gepp and Haigh, are made with reference to the derivation and relation of the words defined, to their special use in the text treated, and to their later use by the student. The General Reference vocabulary encourages thoroughness by directing the student to the passage where the word is first found and fully explained. In the preparation of the notes free use has been made of the latest and best English, French, and German authorities. The editions of Brackenbury, Compton, Bond and Walpole, Long, Peskitt, Moberly, Benoist and Dosson, Menge, Rheinhard, Kraner, and Procksch, have given much valuable assistance. The valuable lives of Caesar, by Col. Dodge, Warde Fowler, Froude, Napoleon III; Rustow's Heerwesen and Kriegfuhrung; and the histories of Duruy, Long, Merivale, Mommsen, etc., have been constantly consulted.

Much credit is due to Mr. H. F. Scott, who has given the advance sheets and proofs his careful revision, and to Mr. E. W. Dresser and his associates of the Wheaton College Press, for the mechanical execution of the work.

Dr. H. W. Johnston of Illinois College, revised the earlier chapters and to him and Dr. Wm. G. Hale, the editors are under obligations for valuable suggestions. Friendly criticism is invited that the book may most completely serve its purpose. C. M, LOWE.

J. T. EWING.

PUBLISHERS' NOTICE. The authors finding their time so thoroughly taken up with professional and other literary labors have made an arrangement whereby a thorough revision of their work should be made to rid it of some small mistakes that are likely to appear in the first edition of any book.

This work has been committed to a thorough scholar who has been for many years a successful teacher of preparatory Latin, and a new set of plates throughout has been made. The book is therefore commended to teachers with entire confidence in its accuracy and thoroughness. The attention of teachers is called to the figures or star following the definitions in the page vocabularies. The figures indicate the number of times a word is used in the first four books of the Gallic War, while the star follows all words used five times or more. August 1oth, 1894.

THE PUBLISHERS.

SUGGESTIONS TO THE STUDENT OF

CAESAR'S COMMENTARIES.

1. Caesar's De Bello Gallico is a masterpiece in literature and clas. sic Latin which demands and repays the most earnest study.

2. Learn thoroughly each new word as it occurs in the special vocab. ularies as it is not repeated and valuable time should not be required to hunt it up again in the general vocabulary. Observe carefully the root meaning of each word and the force of the various words and syllables used in compounding words and you will be able to define many new words for yourself and to add to the definitions given.

3. Familiarize yourself with the system of references employed throughout this book and explained on page 65 Make sure of the principle explained by the reference to the grammars and thereafter only use the reference when in doubt, but do not leave any word until its form and construction are entirely clear.

4. You will best and most really learn the Latin by receiving the thought in the order of the Latin words, just as they stand in the sentence. The meaning of a Latin sentence is not certain until its close. You must therefore suspend your judgment until the sentence is ended. Establish, as far as possible, the meaning of each word as presented. If the word is inflected and several constructions are possible, select the one most likely and then modify this judgment, if required, by the thought as developed in the succeeding words. It will soon become natural to receive the thought of a simple sentence like pater filium cārē amat, "the father his son dearly loves,' without translating into English at all. The more complex and difficult sentences will yield to the same method and the language will become to you replete with the interest felt by the Romans themselves, when received in its own natural and significant order. You will thus learn to think in Latin which is essential to oral or written Latin composition as well as to a living knowledge of the language.

5. When required to translate, let your translation be in the best English you can command. If you retain the Latin idioms by a so-called 'literal translation, you make but half a translation and do violence to both tongues. A barbarous, corrupt English style is formed by such literal translations, while this exercise should be most helpful in en

« IndietroContinua »