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supplies. This pass is now commanded by the famous fortress of Belfort.

3. hoc, pointing to the description which follows.

4. singuli [equites] singulos [pedites], one apiece. versabantur, acted.


5. si quo prodeundum, if there was occasion, &c., (quo= to any place). —exercitatione, through training.—sublevati, supporting themselves. cursum adæquarent, keep pace with them.

49. castris (loc. abl.), in camp. — acie triplici, see ch. 243.

2. castra munire, to fortify the camp. Whenever the Roman halted, even for a single night, a regular camp was laid out, measured with great precision by certain fixed rules (based on the science of augury), and thoroughly fortified with earth-wall, ditch, and palisades. The spade was as familiar to the Roman soldier as the sword or javelin. The camp was regularly a quadrangle, its size proportioned to the number of the troops. In this case, Cæsar had one larger camp about two miles to the east of the Germans, and a smaller one rather more than half a mile to the west of them. Thus Ariovistus could not retreat either way, without passing the Roman entrenchments.

32. 50. instituto suo, according to his plan. potestatem, opportunity.

3. inlatis et acceptis, after giving and receiving.

4. matres familiæ: according to Tacitus (Ger. 8), it was not matrons only, but women as a class, to whom this prophetic power was ascribed. —sortibus, lots of leaves or twigs marked with certain signs; vaticinationibus, tokens interpreted from the noise of waters, river-eddies, &c. ex usu, expedient. utrum necne, § 71, 2; G. 460. - non esse fas, it was not the divine will. — novam lunam (cf. Tac. G. 11): so the Spartans refused to advance to Marathon before the full moon.


51. alarios: the auxiliaries as distinguished from the legionary (Roman) troops. — quod minus valebat, because he was weak in comparison with the enemy. - ad speciem, to make a show, as if the two legions were still there, while in fact they had joined the other force at the greater camp. acie, of legionaries alone.

2. generatim, by tribes or clans. - Marcomannos, this term is explained as men of the Mark," or military frontier.

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3. eo, hither, i. e. among the carts and wagons.— proficiscentes, [the men] as they advanced (obj. of implorabant).

33. 52. singulos legatos, a legatus in command of each legion. This was the beginning of a very important reform in the military organization. Cæsar felt so keenly the evil of the command

being divided among six tribunes, that he detailed one of his aids (legati) nominally to assist the tribunes. After this time, we find the legatus as the regular commander of a legion, with the six tribunes under him. On this occasion he appointed an adjutant (quæstor) to that one of the six legions which was intended to be under his own special command.

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3. in phalangas (acc. plur. § 11, iii. 6, ƒ), against the phalanxes. These were compact bodies of 300 to 400 men each, with shields close locked in front.-revellerent, etc., i. e. instead of pushing from beneath, they grasped the enemies' shields at the upper edge, and so struck down from above (desuper).

4. a sinistro cornu, on their left wing.

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5. P. Crassus, son of Marcus Crassus the triumvir. — expeditior, more disengaged. — versabantur, were engaged.

53. restitutum est, contrasted with laborantibus, above. Rhenum: the nearest point was a little below Basel, about fifty miles distant.

by great effort swam across.

2. tranare contenderunt = reliquos omnes, said to be 80,000.

3. duæ uxores: only chiefs among the Germans, says Tacitus (G. 18), had more than one wife; and this was for the sake of honor and alliances. Sueva, see iv. I. - utræque perierunt : for Cæsar's massacres of women and children, compare iv. 14, vii. 28. - in Cæsarem incidit, happened on Cæsar himself.


4. Procillus, see § 47, 3.-trinis catenis, three [sets of] manacles.

34. 5. neque

harm to him, &c.

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6. se præsente, in his own presence. - ter it was the regular usage of the Germans to consult the lot thrice (Tac. G. 10). This has come down to the present day in sundry games, &c.

54. Ubii (some older editions have ubi): these lived near the modern Cologne, and were deadly enemies of the Suevi (see iv. 3).

2. maturius, earlier, the decisive battle with Ariovistus was fought about the 10th of September. -in citeriorem Galliam, south of the Alps. conventus: the proconsular Courts held for the administration of justice.


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THE BELGIAN CONFEDERACY. The people of Northern Gaul, including Flanders and the Netherlands, were far remote from any country hitherto occupied by the Roman arms. They lived amid forests and swamps hard to penetrate; they claimed kindred with the German tribes rather than the more fickle and effeminate Celts; and they had a fierce and resolute spirit of independence, like that which the Dutch exhibited long after in the same regions, against the armies of Spain.* The Belgian tribes, and particularly the Nervii, appear in this confederation to have offered to Cæsar a more formidable and desperate resistance than any he met elsewhere, until the great rising of B. C. 52; and when their spirit was once broken, the conquest of Gaul was simply a question of time.



35. in hibernis: it is doubtful whether this expression can be used except of an army or a campaign. — crebri thick-coming. adferebantur, fiebat (observe the imperfect of repeated action) = kept coming in; was informed from time to time. — conjurare, uniting under oath : any war against Rome is a 'conspiracy;' a nation enslaved by Rome is 'pacified.'”



2. vererentur, subj. as following esse (§ 66, 2; G. 666).Gallia, i. e. Celtic Gaul.-exercitus noster, i. e. in the way of regular garrisons on their frontier. — partim qui, etc., the three classes were, first, those jealous of the Roman power; second, the restless, who dreaded a strong settled rule; third, those who held a sort of despotic authority as chiefs.

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ut . . . ita, while . . . at the same time. — inveterascere, get a foothold; lit. " grow old." — moleste ferebant, were impatient. 3. novis imperiís (dat. § 51, 2, b; G. 345) studebant, wanted rotation in authority. — nonnullis, i. e. the chiefs of clans.


36. vulgo regna occupabantur, royal power was constantly usurped, by coups d'état" on a small scale. -imperio nostro (loc. abl.), under our dominion.

2. duas legiones, making eight in all, amounting perhaps to 60,000 men, including auxiliaries. The proconsul seems to have had absolute authority to raise these levies.

2. pabuli copia, a supply of food, so that his army could move. dat negotium, gives it in charge. - Senonibus: they were north of the Ædui, on the upper course of the Seine. Their name is preserved in the city of Sens. — uti cognoscant, to learn. A very striking account of the country and its inhabitants will be found in the introduction to Motley's Dutch Republic.

3. constanter, consistently, i. e. their accounts all agreed. cogi, were gathering; conduci, were massing.

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4. non dubitandum quin, there should be no hesitation about. With dubitare in this meaning the infinitive is the ordinary construction.

3. de improviso, unexpectedly. — omni opinione (§ 54, 5, b; G. 399, R1), than any one could think. -Remi, north of the river Marne, the territory near Rheims, in Champagne. They were friendly to the Romans, whose victory over Ariovistus had made them the second power in Gaul (see vi. 12). —ex Belgis, of the Belga (for Belgarum: § 50, 2, R; G. 371, R3).

2. oppidis (loc. abl.) recipere, receive them (the Romans) in their fortified places.

3. Suessiones (obj. of deterrere), west of the Remi: the territory about the modern Soissons.


ut ne . . potuerint (=possent, § 58, 10, c, R; G. 513), that they (the Remi) could not even dissuade, &c. qui utantur, although enjoying the same rights and laws (§ 65, 2, e; G. 637, under which construction it would also be subj. in direct disc.).

unum imperium, i. e. a confederacy, which did not, however, prevent the secession of the Suessiones along with the other Belgæ.quin consentirent, from uniting with them.

4. reperiebat (imperf.), found, by repeated inquiry.

2. plerosque, a great many of: see the end of the chapter, and compare, with respect to the Nervii, Tac. G. 28. They were apparently, however, of Celtic blood; though they considered the German a more proud and heroic descent.

37. propter fertilitatem: construe with consedisse. — fieri, i. e. it was coming to be the case.

3. omnia explorata=full information. — propinquitatibus, blood-relationships; adfinitatibus, alliances by marriage.

4. Bellovacos, near Beauvais. — plurimum valere, have most power.-suos, i. e. of the Remi.

5. regem: showing that the overthrow of royal power (see i. 2) had not yet taken place among the Belgians. cum... tum, not only... but also. -belli summam = conduct of the war.

6. Nervios, to the north of the Suessiones; Atrebates, near Arras; Ambianos, near Amiens; Caletos, near Calais; Veromanduos, in Vermandois; Condrusos, at Condroz; Germani, considered here (by Zeuss) to be a Celtic name meaning "hill-people." 5. liberaliter prosecutis, making liberal promises. — diligenter, promptly.


38. 2. quanto opere (often written quantopere) intersit, how greatly it concerns both the republic (Rome) and their common

interest (§ 50, 4, d; G. 381). ne confligendum sit, lest they should have to contend.

3. Bellovacorum, as lying farthest west, and most remote from Cæsar's field of operations, so as to divide the enemy (cf. ch. 101). · introduxerint, perf. subj. (for fut. perf.), as following docet. 4. ad se venire, were coming straight towards him. — postquam ab iis . cognovit, when he learned from those whom,



&c. · Axonam, the Aisne, here flowing nearly due west, and joining the Seine below Paris, through the Oise.-in extremis finibus, generally, in the remotest part; Bibrax, a town of the Remi, lying eight miles beyond. While here, Cæsar's camp was protected by this river in the rear, and in front by a small marshy stream. castra, the traces of Cæsar's works at this place were discovered in 1862, on a low hill called Mauchamp.

6. duodeviginti pedum, 18 feet (in width).

- circumjecta.

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6. ægre sustentatum est = they hardly held their own. 2. oppugnatio, style of attack. (dat.), having thrown a multitude of men about the walls. — cœpti sunt, see § 38, 1, a; G. 424, R'.

testudine facta, making a tortoise : a military term for a formation in which the men, standing in a compact mass, held their shields above their heads, lapping over each other so as to form a continuous roof, the edges of the shields appearing like the scales of a tortoise-shell.

3. tum, in this instance.

4. finem... fecisset, had put an end to the assault.

7. isdem ducibus usus, employing the same men as guides. 39. Numidas (from Algiers), Cretas: both these, especially the Cretans, were famous bowmen. Baleares, from the small islands east of Spain: they were celebrated slingers. subsidio oppidanis (§ 51, 5; G. 350), dat. of service and of indir. object. - potiundi oppidi, § 73, 2, R; G. 428, R3.

2. morati, depopulati, having delayed, having laid waste: observe that Latin can employ a perfect active participle only (as here) of deponent verbs. The corresponding construction has to be continued in the abl. absolute, with incendo: vicis incensis, having set fire to, &c. omnibus copiis (abl. of accompaniment, see $54, 6, a; G. 391, R'), with all their troops. - ab... duobus, less than two miles off: ab is used here adverbially (§ 56, 2, d; G. 416, R). — amplius: this may be acc. of extent (§ 55, 2; G. 335); or milibus may be abl. of distance, and amplius construed as in § 54, 5, c; G. 311, R1.

8. eximiam opinionem, the eminent reputation had of their valor. prælio supersedere, to defer the engagement (lit. to sit

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