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57. 8. hujus civitatis, i. e. the Veneti, on the southern coast of Brittany, the modern Morbihan. — longe amplissima, very great indeed. - consuerunt, are accustomed (§ 58, 5, R; G. 227, R2).—in magno aperto, in the great and open violence of the sea on a sea exposed to great and violent storms. omnes habent vectigales, treat all as tributaries, i. e. levy tolls upon. 2. ab his fit initium, etc, they begin by detaining these.

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3. ut sunt, etc., as in fact the resolutions of the Gauls are, &c. — eundem . . . laturos = they would bear in common the result of whatever fortune.

4. quam acceperant, indic. as a clause of fact (§ 67, 1, b; G. 630, R1). — quam perferre, than to endure, following the comparative contained in mallent.

5. remittat (sc. ut), hort. subj. depending on the message implied in legationem mittunt.

9. aberat longius, was too far off to take command at once in person. naves longas, galleys, propelled by a large number of oars. Ships of burden (oneraria) were built broad, with a view to capacity. —Ligere, the Loire, where Crassus was wintering. — institui, to be assigned to the several galleys.

2. in se admisissent, had taken on themselves: admitto alone is the ordinary phrase for commit. — legatos ... conjectos (the specific act), in appos. with facinus.

58. 3. pedestria itinera, etc., travelling by land was cut off. —inscientiam, i. e. the Romans' lack of acquaintance.

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confidebant, and they trusted that our armies could not, &c. 4. ut . . . acciderent (concessive, § 57, 5; G. 610), granting that every thing should turn out contrary to their expectation. plurimum posse, were strongest. — facultatem, supply. — longe atque, very different from. — concluso, enclosed

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(like the Mediterranean).

5. Osismos, etc., the coast tribes as far as Flanders. The name Lexovii remains in Lisieux; Namnetes in Nantes; Diablintres in Fablins.

10. injuriæ retentorum equitum, the wrong done by detaining the knights (§ 72, 3, a; G. 667, R2). — rebellio, renewal of hostilities (not rebellion). -ne... arbitrarentur: a new rising was threatened by the Belgians, while the maritime tribes, it is said, were already fearful of an attempt upon Britain. (Observe that this clause is under the same construction as the nominatives injuriæ, defectio, etc.)

2. excitari: the present infin. here corresponds to the imperfect of description, excitabantur: while odisse answers to oderunt taken as a present, all men naturally hate.

11. mandat adeat, gives it in charge (manu dare) to advance upon (§ 70, 3, f, R; G. 547, R2).

59. arcessiti [esse] dicebantur, were reported to have been summoned.

2. Aquitaniam, in S. W. Gaul (see i. 15). The people were of different race and language from the other Gauls, and took little interest in their affairs, not even joining in the great revolt of Book vii. But Cæsar may not have known this (Moberly).

3. Unellos, etc., in Normandy.

4. Decimum Brutum, afterwards one of the conspirators against Cæsar, under the more celebrated Marcus Brutus. — Pictonibus, Santonis, south of the Loire (Poitou and Saintonge).

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12. ejus modi . . . ut, of such sort that. — cum . . . incitavisset = = at high tide. —æstus, tide: properly the surging movement of boiling water; hence applied both to extreme heat and to ocean-tides. — bis, apparently an error of most Mss. Some editors read xxiv. instead of xii.; others refer it to the general ignorance or carelessness of ancient writers. minuente, at the ebb: intransitive, as if from the passive form used as a reflexive.

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2. utraque re, in either case. —superati, agreeing with the subj. of cœperunt. his (aggere ac molibus) adæquatis, when these were brought level with the walls.

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3. hæc faciebant, this they continued to do. eo facilius.. quod, the more easily, that, &c.—vasto mari, etc., in each of these points contrasted with the sheltered and tideless waters of the Mediterranean.

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13. ipsorum, their own. aliquanto planiores, considerably more flat-bottomed. - quo . . possent, that they might more easily

take the shallows and the ebb-tide.

2. admodum erectæ, quite elevated. — robore, oak timber. 60. contumeliam, buffeting. transtra, etc., the decks of beams a foot in depth fastened with iron bolts the thickness of a [man's] thumb.

3. pelles, hides; alutæ, leather. —tanta onera navium, ships of so great burden. non satis commode, not very well: Cæsar does not like to say that any thing is impossible.

4. nostræ classi, etc., the encounter of our fleet with, &c.una, only. — præstaret, had the advantage (i. e. our fleet). — pro loci natura, considering the nature of the ground.

5. rostro, beak, a sharp projecting brazen point, to strike and disable the enemy's ship; copulis, grappling-irons, with which the ships were held so that they might be boarded. When this could be done, the superior skill of the Roman soldiers could always be depended on (see ch. 14').

6. accedebat ut=and besides, followed by ferrent, consisterent, and timerent, which in English would be in the direct construction.se vento dedissent, ran before the wind, a nautical phrase: hence the noun is repeated. The clause cum ... dedissent is parenthetical. — consisterent, came to anchor; ab æstu relictæ, etc., if stranded by the ebb had nothing to fear, &c.— casus, the chance of all these things.

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14. neque posse, that the enemy's retreat could not be prevented by capturing their towns, and that no damage could be done them.

2. paratissimæ, fully equipped; ornatissimæ, thoroughly furnished. The battle was fought in the bay of Quiberon, Cæsar looking on from shore. Bruto constabat, and it was not

clear to Brutus.

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3. excitatis, built up. —ex barbaris navibus, on the part of the enemy's ships (compare i. 2o note).

61. 4. magno usui, of great service, in fact turning disaster to victory: but Cæsar will not use words that hint a possible defeat. - muralium falcium, wall-hooks, long poles with sickleshaped hooks attached (like those used by “hook-and-ladder ” companies) used to pull down walls: it limits formæ (understood), dat. after absimili.

5. prærumpebantur, they (the halyards) were torn away: observe the position of funes in the relative clause.

7. paulo fortius actum, one of Cæsar's mild expressions for an act of remarkable daring.

15. singulas, etc., two or three ships about each. — contendebant, made repeated efforts: compare with contenderunt (2), describing a single act.

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2. expugnatis. navibus, when a good many of their ships had been boarded.

3. conversis . . . navibus, i. e. steered so as to run before the wind. — malacia, calm (a Greek word).

4. pervenerint, came to land: pervenirent would be equally correct, and is found in some copies; but the perfect conveys more distinctly the act of landing.—hora quarta, about 10 A.M.

16. cum . . .

tum, while . . . at the same time: imitating a very frequent Greek construction (uèv ... dé).—convenerant, coegerant, i. e. for this war. — quod ubique, all there was anywhere, followed by the partitive gen. navium.

2. quo, i.e. [any refuge] whither; quem ad modum (often written as one word), how.

62. 3. eo... quo, with the intention that. — vindicandum, vengeance should be inflicted. — omni senatu necato, an instance

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of Cæsar's clementia.—sub corona vendidit, sold [as slaves] at public auction: lit. under the wreath, since the captives were crowned like an animal for sacrifice."

"This can hardly mean that Cæsar sold the whole nation by auction. The mention of the Senate makes it probable that the inhabitants of the capital Dariorigum [Vannes] are meant. Even so the rigor is terrible; and the more so, as regards the senate, from the grim alternative which the next chapter suggests [of being massacred by their own people, ch. 172] as the only one open to these unfortunate rulers” (Moberly).

"He has not said, as he does on another occasion (ii. 33), how many were sold, but we may infer that he depopulated the country of the Veneti at least; and it appears from a later book (vii. 75) that all the Armoric states must have been greatly reduced by this unfortunate war. The only naval power in Gallia that could be formidable to the Romans was totally destroyed, and neither the Veneti nor their allies gave the proconsul any more trouble" (Long).

17. Unellorum, along the Channel coast of Normandy. A more correct reading is said to be Venelli.—magnas copias, considerable forces (not supplies, as these fell short, see 18'), most likely meaning here irregular troops (perditorum hominum, see next section) as opposed to exercitum.

2. his paucis diebus, i. e. about the same time. — perditorum, desperate: it was now the third year of constant war in Gaul.

3. carperetur, was carped at, his reputation "picked to pieces." 4. opportunitate, a favorable chance (opportunus).

18. edocet, instructs.

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2. pro perfuga, in the character of a deserter. — neque longius esse quin not later than: i. e. the time was not farther off. 63. 4. superiorum dierum, on the previous days. firmatio, positive assertion. — parum diligenter, i. e. (in Cæsar's style) very negligently. — spes bellihope founded on, &c.

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credunt — most men are glad to believe, &c.

5. non prius, . . . quam, not . . . until.

6. ut... victoria (abl. abs.) = as if victory were already won. sarmentis, sprouts or young growth; virgultis, brushwood.

19. paulatim adclivis, gently rising. -magno cursu, on a full run.

3. factum est, etc., it resulted from the advantage of ground, the enemy's awkwardness and fatigue, the courage of the men and their practice in former fights.

4. quos: the antecedent is eorum. reliquos paucos, few of the remainder (§ 50, 2, R3; G. 368, R2). — ac= but.

SOUTHERN GAUL.The campaign in Aquitania was made merely for strategic reasons, was not provoked by any attack or threat of one, and

appears to have been quite unnecessary (see note, ch. 112) as well as difficult and dangerous. The Aquitani were not closely allied with the Gauls, took no share in their wars, and were at a secure distance. They had no strong military league or combination, but consisted of small isolated clans, and were besides of more industrial habit, being good miners and engineers. As a mere narrative, however, this is an interesting episode of the war.

64. 20. ex tertia parte (an idiomatic phrase) = as a third part, a greatly exaggerated reckoning. Many of Cæsar's geographical statements (e. g. the account of Britain, v. 13) are extremely ignorant or careless.

Præconinus, Mallius: these defeats were 20 years before (B C. 78), when the Aquitani united with the Marian leader Sertorius, who held Spain for six years against Rome.

2. Tolosa et Narbone (early editions add Carcassone): Tolosa was an old Gallic town; Narbo, a Roman colony established by the policy of Caius Gracchus, B. C. 118. It became the capital of the Roman province, to which it gave its name. Sontiatum, south of the Garonne, S. E. of the modern Bordeaux: the name remains in the modern Sôs.

3. conlocaverunt: some editions have the pluperfect, which seems to be required. — ostenderunt, unmasked.

21. superioribus victoriis, i. e. those just related.—sine imperatore adulescentulo duce: an imperator is the chief commander of an army, holding the imperium, or power of military command conferred on him by regular formalities; dux is a general designation for any person holding a command, and might be given to a subordinate officer, like Crassus, who acted as an agent and under the imperium of his superiors.

perspici: the subj. is the indirect question quid. possent. —vertĕre, histor. infin. The perfect form in ēre is very rare in early prose.

3. cuniculis, mines, so called from their likeness to rabbits' burrows. ærariæ structuræque (hendiadys), copper mines. [The dagger † indicates a corrupt or doubtful reading. Some editions omit the -que, and others have structuræ, works.] — diligentiā, through the watchfulness. — faciunt, they do [it].

65. 22. soldurios, knights, from the Basque SOLDI, horse. It is related that these soldurii "were dressed in royal garments like their chief."

2. condicio: the same condition was found among the Germans (vi. 23), and was the foundation of feudal vassalage.

3. cum his (repeated from cum devotis), with these (I say).

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