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23. Vocatium, etc., further west. quibus, within which. quoque versum, in every direction (quoque the adverb of place formed from the distributive quisque; versum, the adverb of direction usually connected with propositions, as ad . . . versum). It is often written quoquoversum.

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2. Hispaniæ: these Iberian populations were allied to the Aquitani (i. 13). Spain had been subject to Rome for more than 150 years, but was always rather mutinous, and had made several attempts at independence, especially under Sertorius (see note, ch. 201). It was also the last stronghold of Pompey's party in the civil war, till finally subdued at Munda, B.C. 45.

3. omnes annos, i. e. B. C. 78-72.—loca capere, to occupy positions, &c., i. e. make systematic preparations for war.

4. quod, in appos. with the clause suas . . augeri; or (altering the punctuation) it may be taken as a conjunction, the clause being the direct object of animadvertit. - diduci, be scattered in various directions. - minus commode = with great difficulty.

66. 24. duplici, i. e. two cohorts in depth (cf. i. 24o). His numbers were too few to allow greater depth. in mediam aciem, to the centre of his line, where they would be kept in hand by his legionaries (see ch. 25'). — exspectabat, waited [to see] what, &c.

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2. obsessis viis . . . potiri, in English, to block the roads, cut off supplies, and win the victory without a wound. -sese recipere, to withdraw from Aquitania. —in agmine, on the march. infirmiore animo = dispirited, an adjective phrase in the same construction with impeditos (§ 45, 4). — adoriri cogitabant, had in mind to attack. ab ducibus, under the inferior officers.

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3. sua, their own. — opinione timoris, the notion [they had given] of their own cowardice. — exspectari, depending on cohortatus. omnibus cupientibus: to the eager desire of them all. 25. opinionem pugnantium, i. e. an impression as if actually engaged.

2. ab decumana porta, i. e. in the rear (generally).

26. 2, intritæ, unworn. [Observe that while in the compound verb the preposition in has an intensive force (intero, to crumble), in the compound adjective it has a negative force. Many participles have thus two exactly opposite meanings: as infractus, broken up or unbroken.]

67. prius quam: this phrase is often used with the indicative to show that one actual fact precedes another, just as succession is denoted by post quam. Here the subjunctive subordinates the temporal clause to the main idea, just as with cum (§ 62, 2, b and c). 5. apertissimis campis, i. e. the broad treeless plains which abound in this part of the country. — consectatus (intensive from

sequor), overtaking in hot chase.. multa nocte, late at night (loc. abl.). — Cantabris, a very hardy people of the western Pyrenees.

27. Tarbelli, etc.: some of the names will be recognized in the modern Tarbes, Bigorre, Garonne. ultimæ, remotest.

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28. omni pacata, while all the rest of Gaul was subdued. – Morini, etc., on the islands and low coast-lands of Flanders and further north. The Celtic MOR signifies sea. alia ac, different

from.

4. longius, too far (farther than was safe).

conver

68. 29. deinceps, i. e. in the days next following. sam, fronting, i. e. with the boughs turned towards the enemy. pro vallo, as a palisade.

2. tenerentur, were just getting within reach. — ejusmodi uti intermitteretur, such that the work was constantly interrupted (broken off would have been intermissum sit).

3. Aulercis, etc., along the Seine, near Evreux and Lisieux. proxime, last.

BOOK FOURTH.

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PASSAGE OF THE RHINE, The year B. C. 55 appears to have been marked by a general movement in the migration of the German tribes. An advance, consisting of the two populations Usipetes and Tencteri, crowded forward by the more powerful Suevi, crossed the lower Rhine into northern Gaul. Cæsar assumed the defence of the country he had just conquered; drove them back across the Rhine; followed them up by an expedition into their own territories, and fully established the supremacy of the Roman arms. Another brief campaign in Germany, two years later, confirmed this success; and the Rhine became the military frontier, recognized for many centuries, between the Roman empire and the barbarian world. In the common opinion of France it is to this day the natural boundary, established (as it were) in perpetuity by the arms of Julius Cæsar.

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69. Pompeio, Crasso: this was B. C. 55. The coalition between Cæsar, Pompey, and Crassus, sometimes called the First Triumvirate, had been formed five years before. In carrying out their scheme, he held the Government of Gaul, while the others took into their own hands this year the whole control of affairs at home (see Introd., “Life of Cæsar.")

Usipetes, Tencteri, from beyond the Rhine, a little below Cologne.

2. Suevis: this people (the modern Swabians) occupied the greater part of central Germany, and was made up of several independant tribes. The name is held to mean wanderers. — premebantur, had been crowded (§ 58, 3, b; G. 225).

3. centum pagos (see i. 12): there is probably some confusion here with the ancient German institution of the Hundred, a division of the population giving its name to a district of territory. Each hundred seems to have sent 1000 men (singula milia) to the army. The term early lost its numerical value, and became a mere local designation.

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in vicem (invicem), in turn.

4. anno post, the year after. 70. 5. privati . . . agri, i. e. the land was held in tribal communities, a state of things almost universal among primitive nations. (But some of the Germans appear to have been more advanced: see Introduction, near the end.) — longius anno: i. e. the Hundred had no fixed possessions, but was transferred yearly from one tract to another, its place being taken by another Hundred. This would prevent at once forming local attachments, and too rapid exhausting of the soil.

6. frumento, etc. they were still in a half-nomadic state, though with some little advance in agriculture (compare vi. 22, and Tac. Germ. 26). — maximam partem (adv. acc.), for the most part.

quom (some copies read quod). . . faciant; this clause is a parenthesis: since from childhood they are trained to no service or discipline, and do nothing whatever against their will, — a lively contrast of barbarous manners with the severity of Roman family discipline.alit, the subj. is quæ res. homines (pred.) efficit, makes [them] men, &c.

7. eam, correl. with ut.-locis frigidissimis even in their extreme climate. — haberent, have; lavarentur, bathe (imperf. by sequence of tenses following adduxerunt).

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2. eo, ut ... habeant, so that they may have [some one] to whom, &c. - quam quo desiderent, than that they want, &c. (For the use of quo with the implied negative, see § 66, 1, R; G. 541, R').

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3. eodem vestigio, on the same spot (foot-print). est, when there is need. — ephippiis, saddles (a Greek word). 4. quamvis pauci, however few.

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3. publice, i. e. to them as a community. a suis finibus, on (back from) their boundaries. una... Suevis, extending from [the territory of] the Suevi in one direction.—agri, the region (nom. plur.). The extent of waste lands "is here much exaggerated."

71. 2. Ubii, along the Rhine, between the Usipetes and the Suevi. - captus, capacity. — paulo . . humaniores (omit the words in brackets), somewhat more civilized than the others of that race (Germans).

3. gravitatem, importance. — humiliores (pred.), sc. so as to be. 4. in eadem causa, in the same case. ad extremum, at length.

2. ad utramque ripam, along both banks.

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4. priusquam . . fieret, § 62, 2, c; G. 579.- eorum copiis, on their supplies (cattle and corn).

5. infirmitatem, weakness of purpose = fickleness. committendum, nothing should be left to their discretion.

nihil

72. 2. est... consuetudinis, it is [a point] of Gallic custom (§ 50, 1, d; G. 365, R'). — vulgus circumsistat.. cogant, a crowd surrounds the traders, and compels, &c. With the former verb, the crowd is taken as a whole; with the second, the inquisitive questioners are thought of.

3. rebus atque auditionibus, facts or hearsays. —in vestigio, on the spot, i. e. presently (sur-le-champ). — serviant= are ruled by. - plerique respondeant, many give false answers to suit

their whim.

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6. graviori bello, too serious a war (i.e. unmanageable). maturius, earlier in the season. ad exercitum: the army was now in Normandy (iii. 29).

2. uti ... discederent, to advance from the Rhine further into Gaul. The Belgæ, it will be remembered, claimed kindred with the Germans, and were no doubt ready to retaliate their bloody defeat upon the Romans. -fore parata, should be got ready (the regular fut. infin. passive, depending on some such word as promiserunt).

4. quæ cognoverant, the facts he had learned (the subj. cognovisset would make it an indir. question). — permulsis, calmed from their terror (lit. soothed by stroking, like a nervous horse).

7. equitibus delectis: the quota of cavalry was required of each of the allied states.

2. priores: =as aggressors (compare the language of Ariovistus, i. 36). — neque recusarc quin, they do not decline. quicumque : the antecedent is eis (dat.) implied with resistere. cari, and ask no quarter.

- neque depre

3. hæc tamen dicere, this however we say [said they]. — iis, to the Romans; eos, sc. agros. - concedere, yield, as inferior.

73. 8. quæ visum est, as it seemed good (see i. 14, 43). – verum, right.

2. Ubiorem, see ch. 32. quorum sint, etc., whose envoys (he informs them) are now with him to complain, &c.

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9. post diem tertium (= tertio die), i. e. the next day but one. (The first and last day are usually counted in the reckoning: so in French en huit jours in a week.) — id, the two days' delay. 2. trans, i. e. westwardly. — exspectari, translate actively, they were waiting for.

10. Vosego, the Vosges: in fact, "from the plateau of Langres, the cradle of French rivers.". parte . . . recepta: the Rhine branches in these low marshy regions, one branch (Vacalus, the modern Waal), uniting with the Meuse near Bois-le-Duc (see note, ch. 15).

2. Nantuatium (compare iii. 1): the name is said to mean river-people. This list of names is incomplete. - citatus, with rapid course. - feris . . . nationibus : see the introduction to

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Motley's "Dutch Republic."

11. ut erat constitutum, as had been arranged (the return of the envoys).

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