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74. 2. eos (anteced. to qui), the cavalry who, &c. — potestatem faceret, would give authority. — condicione . . would keep the terms offered by Cæsar.

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usuros,

3. eodem illo pertinere, tended the same way with the other (see ch. 9). i. e. to gain time till the German cavalry should arrive. aquationis causa: a small stream (the Niers) lay between him and the German encampment.

12. ubi primum . .

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conspexerunt, as soon as they came in amplius octingentos, more than 800 ($ 45, 3, c; G. 311, R). — perturbaverunt, threw into disorder.

sight.

2. resistentibus, sc. nostris. — subfossis, stabbed in the belly. -ita perterritos, so panic-stricken.

3. regnum obtinuerat, had held royal power.

75. 13. neque jam, no longer: knowing how little his own cavalry (of Gauls) were to be trusted, and that the arrival of the main body of the Germans would put them at once to flight, Cæsar resolved to attack at the first opportunity, right or wrong. —ab iis qui, from men who, &c.

2. quantum auctoritatis, how great prestige the enemy had gained by one battle. quibus, i. e. the enemy.

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3. quæstore, see i. 52'. — res, in appos. with quod . . . venerunt. — eadem perfidia: their perfidy Cæsar takes for granted, as the best apology for his own; but the presence of the chiefs and old men looks more as if they came (as they said) to offer amends for the attack of the day before.

4. contra atque, contrary to what. si quid . . de indutiis⇒ whatever they could in the way of truce (de with the abl. is nearly the same with the part. gen.).— fallendo, i. e. by another trick. 5. quos, illos, both refer to the same subject. quos oblatos gavisus, delighted that they were put in his power. By detaining their chief men, he would at once perplex and disable them. — subsequi, to follow in the rear; he could not trust them in the intended attack.

14. quid ageretur, what was going on.

2. ne.. an . . an (§ 71, 2; G. 460): the three infinitives all belong to præstaret, whether it were better.

4. quo loco here on the ground (a military phrase), where they had some slight advantage.

76. reliqua multitudo: the presence of women and children shows that it was a migration for settlement, not a mere inroad for plunder. ad quos consectandos (frequent. of sequor), to hunt them down, a fit business for the cowardly and treacherous Gallic horse. Referring to this massacre of helpless fugitives, Plutarch writes that, "when the Senate was voting public thanksgiving and

processions on account of the victory, Cato proposed that Cæsar should be given up to the barbarians to expiate that breach of faith, that the divine vengeance might fall upon its author rather than upon Rome" (Life of Cæsar).

15. confluentem: the reasons are very strong against placing this action in the low lands at the confluence of the Rhine and Meuse (Mosa); among them the great distance, more than 120 miles, from the place where Cæsar actually crossed the Rhine. It will make the whole narrative much clearer, to regard this (with Goeler) as the confluence of the Rhine and Mosella (Moselle) at Coblentz, the ancient Confluentes. In this view the text has been confused by the likeness of the names, while ch. 10 appears to be a note added perhaps by some geographer. —reliqua fuga, further flight.

2. ex... timore=relieved from [the apprehension of] so great a war.

3. discedendi potestatem, permission to depart. Cæsar practically acquits them of the charge of treachery (compare his dealings with the Veneti, iii. 16). The attack and massacre were purely for "moral effect."

· supplicia = vengeance.

16. illa, the following. —justissima, most reasonable. - suis intellegerent, he wished them to fear for their own affairs also, since they would understand, &c. (cum intellegerent is here nearly equivalent to a participle).

2. accessit quod:

=

and besides.

quam . . . transisse, which, as I mentioned above (the conjunction that of indirect discourse cannot be used in English to introduce a relative clause). Observe that Cæsar the writer uses the first person (commemoravi); Cæsar the actor is always in the third.—Sugambrorum, just north of the Ubii.

3. qui postularent... dederent, to require them to surrender those who, &c.—finire, was the limit of (see introd. note, Book iv.). -se invito, without his own consent.—sui imperii (pred. after esse), under his power.

4. occupationibus reipublicæ, by the demands of state affairs. 5. opinionem, reputation. navium, boats.

17. nequc ... esse, it did not belong to his dignity, &c.

2. latitudinem, etc. Cæsar's passage of the Rhine was most probably at Bonn, where the high and rocky banks begin; or at Neuwied, 20 or 25 miles further south, where there is a break in the chain of hills (but here, it is said, the bottom is rock, and not fit for driving piles). The width of the river at either place is about 1400 feet; its depth is very variable. It is now crossed in these parts by floating bridges of boats.

3. rationem, plan. The brief description which Cæsar gives of his rough and ready but very serviceable engineering may be made clearer by giving its different points as follows:

1. A pair of unhewn logs, a foot and a half thick (tigna bina sesquipedalia), braced two feet apart, and sharpened at the end, is driven with rammers (fistucis) into the bottom, sloping a little with the stream (4).

2. A similar pair is driven in opposite, 40 feet below, sloping a little against the stream (4): the upper ends of the two pairs would thus be some 25 or 30 feet apart, the width of the roadway.

3. A beam of square timber, two feet thick (trabs bipedalis), and about 30 feet long, is made fast at the end by ties (fibulis) between the logs of each pair, which are thus kept at a proper distance apart, while they are strongly braced against the current (5).

4. A suitable number (probably about 60) of these trestles, or timberarches, having been built and connected by cross-ties, this part of the structure must be taken for granted, — planks are then laid lengthwise of the bridge (directa materia), resting on the heavy floor-timbers; and upon these, again, saplings and twigs (longurii, crates) are spread, to prevent the jar and wear of the carts upon the flooring (6).

5. Piles (sublica) are then driven in below, resting obliquely against the logs, to which they serve as shores or butts (pro ariete), and other heavier piles a little way above, to break the force of floating logs or boats sent down to destroy the bridge (7).

tigna, probably unhewn logs. — bina, two and two, i. e. in pairs. -pedum duorum, i. e. between the timbers of each pair.

4. machinationibus immissa, driven in with engines (a sort of pile-drivers). — sublicæ modo, like a pile. — fastigate, sloping (like the rafters of a house). — ut procumberent, so as to fall forward with the current. —ab inferiore parte, down stream.

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5. hæc utraque . distinebantur, these two sets (or pairs) were held apart by two-foot timbers laid on above, -[in thickness] equal to the interval left by the fastening of the beams (quantum

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distabat), with a pair of ties at each end. — quibus [tignis] revinctis, which being held apart, and made fast again at the opposite end, i. e. the ties held them apart, while the main beams kept them from falling asunder.

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6. hæc... contexebantur, these (the framework of timber) were covered with boards lengthwise. -sublicæ . . . agebantur, piles (or shores) were driven slanting on the lower side, so as to prop the bridge against the current. - pro ariete, as a buttress (abutting).

7. aliæ item, other piles a little way above, to serve as a breakwater or stockade. - deiciendi operis, sc. gratiā (§ 73, 3,

a', last example; G. 429, R), to throw down the work. - his defensoribus, by these defences. .neu... nocerent, and that they (trunci, etc.) might not harm the bridge.

18. diebus decem, within ten days. - traducitur, the histor. present, resumed from 161.

3. hortantibus iis, etc., the few who had escaped the massacre of ch. 15, and had taken refuge across the Rhine.

19. succisis, cut down to the ground.

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omnes,

2. uti ... convenirent, clause of result (§ 70, 3, a; G. 546, R') following the verbal phrase nuntios . . . dimisisse. sc. ut. — hunc, etc., this (the place of meeting) had been selected in the midst, &c.; medium, agreeing directly with hunc (§ 47, 6; G. 324, R), in preference to the adverbial phrase in medio.

3. ut...

liberaret, these clauses are in appos. with rebus iis. 79. ulcisceretur, chastise. — rescidit, broke up.

THE LANDING IN BRITAIN. - What is called the First Invasion of Britain, though it marks an interesting date in history, and gave fresh stimulus to Roman curiosity and ambition, was in itself an affair of small account. It was, in fact, only meant for a reconnoissance, or, perhaps, as opening the way to further schemes. Towards the end of summer, Cæsar sailed across to the white cliffs of Dover, coasted a few miles towards the west, and established a camp on the British coast. His cavalry, meanwhile, had been weatherbound in their transports, and then, after crossing, were driven back by rough winds without even coming to land. After holding an uneasy and perilous position for about three weeks, he returned to Gaul, without accomplishing anything beyond a barren display of hardihood.

20. exiguā... reliquã, when but little of the summer was left: ablative absolute (or it might be construed as simple loc. abl., in the brief remainder of the summer; illustrating the development of the one from the other construction). — etsi . . . tamen contendit, though the winters are early, yet he made haste to

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advance, &c.

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2. omnibus bellis (loc. abl.), in almost all, &c.-hostibus, dat. after sumministrata, furnished to the enemy.—si . . . tamen, even if time should fail, still, &c. - magno usui, dat. of service. —fore: the subj. is the clause si ... cognovisset, he thought it would be of great advantage if, &c.; the pluperfect adisset, etc., representing the future perf. adierit, following arbitrabatur. [Observe in this sentence, that while Cæsar's action is given in the perfect (contendit), his reasons are in the imperfect (intellegebat, arbitrabatur); while the conditional clauses si deficeret, si adisset, are strictly future conditions carried into the past by the

sequence of tenses, § 59, 4, f; G. 598, R1.]—quæ omnia, all of which (§ 50, 2, R3; G. 368, R2). - Gallis incognita, i. e. except

to the secluded and jealous Veneti (iii. 8).

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3. neque enim (neg. of etenim, § 43, 3, d; G. 500, R3), to be rendered with quisquam, for no one. -temere, without good reason. — neque quicquam = and nothing.—iis, dat. after notum (§ 51, 4, b; G. 352). — Gallias, i. e. Celtic and Belgic Gaul. 4 vocatis mercatoribus, etc. - he called the traders, but could not, &c. quem usum = =what degree of skill. portus, these indir. questions follow reperire poterat.

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quanta

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21. periclum faceret, making the trial (or risk). — idoneum, a fit person. - navi longa, see iii. 9'. —quam primum, as soon as possible.

2. Morinos, occupying the nearest point to Britain: in clear weather the British coast is in sight from these shores. - - quam classem, the fleet which (§ 48, 3, b; G. 618). — qui polliceantur, to promise (§ 64, 1; G. 544), followed by dare as complem. infin. (§ 70, 2, d; G. 527, R3), a rare use, for se daturos [esse].

89. 4. ut permanerent, to remain, object-clause after hortatus. Atrebatibus superatis (see ii. 23): the same people, it is said, occupied Berkshire in England, whence the supposed influence of Commius.ibi, i. e. among the Atrebates (§ 48, 5; G. 613, R'). — magni, gen. of value (§ 50, 1, i; G. 399), of great account. 5. huic, indir. obj. of imperat; the direct obj. is the whole clause, down to nuntiet.- fidem sequantur, i. e. accept the protection of, or submit to. -seque. nuntiet, and tell them that he is coming.

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6. quantum (sc. tantum). auderet, so far as opportunity could be given to one who did not venture, &c.—perspexisset, had investigated: for sequence of tenses, see § 58, 10, e; G. 511, R'.

22. superioris temporis, of the season before (see iii. 28). — homines barbari= being (as they were) barbarians.

2. satis opportune, quite seasonably. — has . . anteponendas, that occupation about such little matters should be put before [the invasion of] Britain.

3. coactis, gathered from various quarters; contractis, brought together into port (at Boulogne). — quod . . . habebat, all the galleys he had besides. —ex eo loco, etc., eight miles from there, at the port of Ambleteuse. tenebantur quo minus, were detained from. - equitibus, cavalry, of whom there were 450.

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81. 23. idoneam tempestatem, favorable weather. tertia vigilia, at midnight. The date was August 26, high water being about half past seven, P.M.; the ships, therefore, would go out at

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