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mark the nounal group, we should just notice that there is not in thought the same adjectival character in the numeral as there is in the nounal group. If I say bright stars, fabled graces, uncertain seas, receptive senses, these adjectives have the same relation to their substantives, whether those substantives be taken in the plural or in the singular. Whereas the numerals two, three, four, five, belong to their substantives only conjointly and not severally. have been a dim sense of this difference that caused the vacillation which has appeared in language about the adjectival declension of numerals. In Saxon the first three numerals were declined. Thus, þreora is genitive of preo:

pis is þæra þreora hida land gemere,' &c. “This is the land-meer of the three hides,' &c. (A.D. 974.)

Adverbial numerals are such as once, twice, thrice, four times, &c., where it is to be observed that the difference of adverbial form between the first three numerals and their successors is of a piece with the fact that these three were declined, and the others were not, at least not within recorded memory. The adverbs once, twice, thrice, are in fact old genitives which have been disfigured by a frenchified orthography. In the Ormulum they are spelt thus : aness, twizess, thrizess.

This group is exceedingly retentive of antiquity. Not only is there a radical identity in the numerals of the Gothic family, but these again are identical with the numerals of other families of languages. This indicates a very high antiquity. It will be as well to illustrate this fact by comparative tables. First, we will compare the different forms assumed by the numerals in some of the various branches of our own Gothic family, and then we will pass beyond that limit and take into our comparison some of the most illustrious languages of the Indo-European stock.

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THE TALE OF CARDINAL NUMBERS IN Meso-GOTHIC. ANGLO-Saxon.

ENGLISH. ICELANDIC. DANISH.

GERMAN. ains ân one einn

een
twai
twa, twegen two

tveir
to

zwei
threis
threq
three
thrir
tre

drei
fidwór
feower
four
fjórir
fire

vier
fimf
fif
five
fimm
fem

fünf
saihs
six
six
sex
sex

sechs
sibun
seofon
seven
sjau
syv

fieben
ahtau
eahta
eight
átta
aatte

achi
niun
nigon
nine
níu
ni

neun
taihun
tyn
ten
tíu
ti

zehn
ainlif
endlufon
eleven
ellifu
elleve

elf
twalif
twelf
twelve
tólf
tolv

zwolf
threis-taihun threotyne

thirteen
threttán
tretten

dreizehn
fidwor-taihun feowertyne, &c. fourteen, &c. fjórtán

fjörten

vierzehn
twai-tigjus twentig

twenty
tuttugu
tyve

zwanzig an and twentig, &c. twenty-one, &c. tuttugu ok einn een og tyve einundzwanzig threis-tigjus thrittig

thirty thrírtigir tredive

dreislig fidwor-tigjus feowertig forty

fjórirtigir fyrretyve vierzig fimf-tigjus fiftig

fifty

fimmtigir halvtredsindstyve fünfzig saihs-tigjus sixtig

sixty
sextigir

tresindstyve Sedizig
sibun-têhund hund-seofontig seventy

sjautigir

halvfjersindstyve fiebzig ahtau-têhund hund-eahtatig eighty

áttatigir

firsindstyve achtzig niun-tehund hund-nigontig ninety

níutigir

halvfemsindstyve neunzig taihun-têhund or Hund or hundte- Hundred

hundrað hundrede

hundert
Hund.

ontig
hund-twelftig
hundred & twenty

hundrede og tyve hundert und zwanzig twa hunda twa hund two hundred

to hundrede

zwei hundert thrija hunda threo hund three hundred, &c.

tre hundrede drei hundert thusendi thusend thousand thúsund tusinde

tausend

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un

sex

In consequence of the luxuriant declension of the numerals in Sanskrit, I have followed the authority of Bopp's Grammar for the theme' in each case, that is to say, the part of the word which is present or implied in each of the various forms under which it appears in literature. SANSKRIT. GREEK.

LATIN.

LITHUANIAN. eka

hen
dva
du

du
tri
tri
tri

tri
chatur
tessar

quatuor
panchan pente

quinque

penki
shash
hex

szeszi
saptan
hepta
septem

septyni
ashtan
okto
octo

asztuni
novem

dewyni
dasan
deka
decem

deszimt
ekadasan
hendeka

undecim
dvadasan
dodeka

duodecim
trayodasan triskaideka

tredecim chaturdasan tessareskaideka

quatuordecim
unavinsati

undevinginti
vinsati
eikosi

viginti
trinsat
tria konta

triginta
chatvarinsat tesserakonta quadraginta
panchasat pentekonta quinquaginta
shashti
hexakonta

sexaginta
saptati

hebdomēkonta septuaginta asiti

ogdoēkonta octoginta
navati

eneněkonta nonaginta
satam
hekaton

centum

navan

ennea

The numerals have been inserted in this place as a sort of appendix to the nounal group, because of the manifest affinity of their form and their use to that group. At the same time enough has been said to indicate that they have a distinct character of their own, and that it would be unphilological to let them be absorbed into any class of words whatever. Their assimilation to the nounal group is less now than it was in ancient times; that is to say, the modern languages permit their distinctive character to be more apparent than the ancient languages did.

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That this is the proper place for the numerals we conclude not only from their assimilation to the nounal group on the one hand, but also from certain traces of affinity which they bear to the pronouns, and on which we shall have to touch in the next chapter.

P.S.—By an oversight, which it is now too late to correct in its proper place, the Ordinal numbers have been omitted. It is in these that the numeral more particularly assumes an adjectival character. We retain all the ordinals in the Saxon form except two, namely, first and second.

First rose into its place from the dialects; but second was borrowed from the French---a solitary instance among the numerals, properly so called. The Saxon word in its place was other, a word which has now a pronominal value only.

CHAPTER VIII.

THE PRONOUN GROUP.

We now cross the greatest chasm in language-the chasm which separates the presentives from the symbolics. So profoundly has this separation been felt by philologers, that some would even regard these two spheres of speech as radically and originally distinct from each other. The consideration of this theory would lead us beyond the track of the present treatise. It is only introduced here as a testimony to the greatness of the distinction between nouns and pronouns. Bopp, in his Comparative Grammar, $ 105, taught that in Sanskrit and the kindred languages (which include English) there are two classes of roots, the one of verbs and nouns, the other of 'pronouns, all original prepositions, conjunctions, and particles.' The former he calls Verbal Roots, the latter Pronominal Roots.

On the other hand, we find Professor Max Müller at different periods holding different views as to the derivation of aham, the Sanskrit ego; and at one time he proposed to derive it from a Sanskrit verb ah to breathe, to speak. He has in his Lectures (Second Series, 1864) given up this view without joining the ranks of those who have assigned to it a pronominal root. He gives us moreover an excellently

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