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hardly are anything else. Yet none of these words possess by right of extraction the slightest negative signification. The fact seems to be that the word which is added for the sake of emphasis, becomes a more enduring element that its principal, and comes to bear the stress of the function, by the mere virtue of its emphasis. As in French we see but one or two extant relics of negation without the subjoined adverb, and as the subjoined adverb has in many instances grown into a recognised negative in its own right, so there is every reason to apprehend that but for the conservative influences of literature, the ne would have been by this time very much nearer to vanishing from the language than it actually is. And, had this happened, it would have been only a repetition of that process in which I conceive me to have formerly borne the converse part of the action. Ne is probably the relic of some adverbial pronoun, which at first served a long apprenticeship under some ancient and now forgotten negative, of whose function it long bore the stress and emphasis, until at length it became the sole substitute. The Welsh dim, which means ‘no,’ ‘none,' is known through the familiar answer Dim Saesoneg, which means “No Saxon, or, ‘I don't speak English.' Now this word dim etymologically is merely the word for thing. Pob means “every,’ and pob ddim is the Welsh for “everything,” Thus, in modern Greek, the negative bev is the relic of oë8év, “not one': the not has perished, and the one is now the negative. As a further illustration it may be added that in the western counties it was common thirty years ago for rustic arithmeticians to call the tenth cipher, the Zero or Nought, by the name of Ought, thus retaining only that part of the word which was purely affirmative by extraction. Nought is an abbreviation for man-wuht, ‘no-whit’; and the verbal negative not is but a more rapid form of nought.
2. Of the Flexional Pronoun-Adverbs.
Under this head come such old familiar forms as here, there, where, when, then, hence, whence, why, hither, whither, which are ancient flexional forms that sprung from adverbs of the substantival and adjectival classes. The tracing of some of these to their origin is a matter of obscure antiquity: others are clear; but the enquiry belongs rather to Saxon than English philology.
Then there are compounds of these, as wherethrough (Wisdom xix. 8).
‘Elsewhere the plebeian element of nations had risen to power through the arts and industries which make men rich—the Commons of Scotland were sons of their religion.”—J. A. Froude, History of England, February,
“And one hath had the vision face to face,
Alfred Tennyson, The Holy Grail.
Space will not permit us to unravel the history of each of these words, and therefore we will choose one as a specimen for fuller treatment. This shall be the adverb-pronoun there and its co-flexionists. From the declension of that have sprung those composite pronouns which may be looked upon as a sort of halfdeveloped new inflection of the word. Nom. that (or it) Gen. thereof Dat. thereto or therefor(e) Acc. that (or it)
In the following stave of the twelfth century we have thereby in the physical sense of by that place :
“Merie sungen Öe muneches binnen Ely,
Merry sang the monks in Ely, As king Canute rowed thereby: Row ye boys nigher the land, And bear we these monks' song. Therefore is used interchangeably with of it in I Kings vii. 27. The pronoun the, which has been spoken of in a former section, belongs here. When we say ‘so much the better,’ this the is an instrumental case of the demonstrative that, and answers to the Latin eo, and is in its place here among the flexional adverb-pronouns. The first numeral has a peculiarly pronominal tendency, and so its flexional adverb once, when used without any numerical value, as in the following quotation, passes over from its place in the former chapter, to this present section. “As in those domes, where Caesars once bore sway, Defac'd by time and tottering in decay, There in the ruin, heedless of the dead, The shelter-seeking peasant builds his shed; And, wondering man could want the larger pile,
Exults, and owns his cottage with a smile.’
Such also is our use of this word when we open a child's story with Once upon a time: it is the Latin aliquando, and may be compared with the provincial English somewhen.
3. Of the Phrasal Pronoun-Adverbs.
As the flexional character becomes obscure, and the flexional signification is forgotten, symbolic words are called in to supplement the enfeebled adverb. Thus whence gets the larger formula from whence, as Genesis iii. 23:
Miles Coverdale, 1535. 1611. “The LoRDE God put him out of “Therefore the Lord God sent the garden of Eden, to tyll ye earth, him foorth from the garden of Eden, whence he was taken.” to till the ground, from whence he was taken.”
But more commonly a new sense is gained by the employment of the phrasal adverb, as
“Prussians and Bavarians have fought side by side, and have equally distinguished themselves. The Maine is bridged over for ever.’—August 4, 1870. for something.
“Our volition counts for something, as a condition of the course of events. —T. H. Huxley, Lay Sermons.
To this section belong all such adverbial phrases as these: at all, at once, after all, of course, in a way, in a fashion, in a manner, in a sort of way, in some sort, after a sort (the two latter in R. Hooker, Of the Laws, I. v. 2).
Some of these naturally develope with peculiar luxuriance after negative verbs and as a complement to the negation, as in the following from Hugh Latimer, The Ploughers, 1549 –
“Whereas in deede it toucheth not monkerie, nor maketh anything at all for any such matter.’ not at all. “Not at all considering the power of God, but puffed vp with his ten thousand footmen, and his thousand horsemen, and his fourescore elephants.’ —2 Maccabees xi. 4.
The progress of modern languages, turning as it does in great measure upon the development of the symbolic element, naturally sets towards the production of grouped expressions, and this again displays itself with particular activity in the adverbial parts of language, whether they be presentively or symbolically adverbial, that is to say, whether the nounal or the pronounal character is prevalent. For the tendency of novelty is to show itself prominently in the adverbs of either category, just on the same principle as the extremities of a tree are the first to display the newest movements of growth. The adverbs are the tips or extremities of speech. Hence such adverbial phrases as the following:—
somewhere or offer.
‘He is somewhere or other in France, leading that dreary purposeless life
which too many of our ruined countrymen are forced to lead in continental towns.’
Some of the phrasal adverbs have assumed the form of single words, by that symphytism which naturally attaches these light elements to each other. Hence the forms withal, however, whenever, howsoever, zwhensoever, whatever, nevertheless, notwithstanding. otherwise.
‘Impossible therefore it is we should otherwise think, than that what things God doth neither command nor forbid, the same he permitteth with
approbation either to be done or left undone.”—Richard Hooker, Of the Laws, &c., II. iv. 4.
contrarizonse. “Not rendring euill for euill, or railing for railing: but contrarywise blessing.—I Peter iii. 9. Opside-down is an adverb that has been altered by a false light from up-so-down, or, as Wiclif has it, up-se-down,
wherein so is the old relative, and the expression is equivalent to up-what-down.