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was sall. So among the tribes of Israel at the time of the Judges, it was a peculiarity of the tongue of the Ephraimites that they could not frame to pronounce sh, but said Sibboleth instead of Shibboleth. This is so definite a feature of the northern dialect that it is worth while to collect some of the examples in which it makes the contrast of the two texts:— \

Scaft, shaft Saft
Scarpe, sharp Sorpe
Scaeve. sheath Seape
Scal, scalt, scullen, sculleč, shall Sal, salt, sollen, sollep
Sceldes, shields Seldes
Sceort, short Sort
Scuten, they shot Soten
Sceren, scar; shear, shore Seren, sar
Scean, shone Son
Scip, ship Sip
Scame, shame Same
Sculderen, shoulders Soldre
Scunede, shunned Sonede.

The wall of Severus, which was made against the Picts, is called in the elder text scid-wall, that is, wall of separation, quasi &deibe-QSass; and in the later or northern text it is sid-wal. (Vol. ii. p. 6, ed. Madden.)

The following specimen is from the elder text of Layamon's Brut :—


Line 96.16.

pa be time wes ifulled, When the time was fully come pat hit fulleht sculde habben, that it baptism should bave aester pan apelene lasen, according to the national laws pat stoden open ilke daegen, that stood in those same days; nome heo him arachten, a name they bestowed on him and Gloi pat child hahten. and named the child Gloi. pis child wax and wel ipath; This child grew and throve well and muchel folc him to bah. and much people bowed to him,

and Claudien him bitahte, and Claudien committed to bim

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The next specimen is from the younger or northern

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Line 6046.

Nou ich be habbe i-sed hou hit his agon, of Kairliun in Glommorgan. Go we 3et to Belyn, to pan blisfolle kyinge. po he hadde imaked pes borh, and hit cleopede Kair-Uske: bo pe borh was strong and hende; po gan he panne wende, riht to Londene, }o borh he swipe louede. He bi-gan per ane tur; pe strengeste of alle pan tune: and mid mochele ginne, a 3et par hunder makede. po me hit cleopede Belynes;at. Nou and euere more, pe name stondip pare. Leuede Belyn pe king, in allere blisse: and alle his leode lofde hine swipe. In his da;es was so mochel mete, pat hit was onimete.

the borough that he owned, and manned it with knights which good were to fight. [securely And be ordered them to guard it and be called it Gloucester; all for love of his son wbo was dear to bis heart; who afterwards conquered all Welshto his own band. [land And thereof he was demster and duke many years.

Now I have said to thee bow it happened, touching Caerleon in Glamorgan. Go we back again to Belyn, to that blissful king. When he bad made the burgh and called it Caer-Usk : When the burgh was strong and trim, then gan be wend thence right to London, the burgh he greatly loved. He began there a tower the strongest of all the town; and with much art a gate there-under made. Then men called it ‘Billingsgate.’ Now and ever-more, the name standeth there. Lived Belyn the king in all bliss: and all his people loved him greatly. In his days was there so much meat, that it was without measure.

The Ormulum may be proximately dated at A.D. 1215. As the date cannot be given with precision, the date of Magna Carta is here selected, for the sake of its bearing on the subject, as will be seen presently. The Ormulum is a versified narrative of the Gospels, addressed by Ormin or (curtly) Orm to his brother Walter, and after his own name called by the author ‘Ormulum'; by which designation it is commonly known.

Icc patt tiss Ennglish hafe sett I that this English have set
Ennglisshe men to lare, English men to lore,

Icc wass par-paer I cristnedd wass I was there-where I christened was
Orrmin bi name nemmedd. Ormin by name named.

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This book has been admirably edited, and with the most perfect fidelity to the one extant manuscript, by Dr. White, formerly Professor of Anglo-Saxon. It was printed at the Clarendon Press, 1852. As the Brut represents the western type of English, so this does the eastern. In this poem we find for the first time the term ‘English' in the mature form. Layamon has the forms englisc, englis, anglis, anglisce, &c.; but Orm has enngliss, and still more frequently the fully developed form ennglissh.

The excess of consonants with which this word is written is a constant feature of the Ormulum. The author was one of Nature's philologists, and he displayed his talent by attempting a phonetic system of spelling. Had his orthography been generally adopted, we should have had in English not only the mm and nn with which German abounds, but many other double consonants which we do not now possess. How great a study Orm had made of this subject, we are not left to gather from observation of his spelling, for he has emphatically pointed out the importance of it in the opening of his work.

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And whase wilenn shall piss boc And whoso shall determine to copy efft operr sipe writenn this book, I beg him to write it himm bidde icc patt he’t write accurately as the book directeth; and

rihht that be write a letter twice wherever swa summ piss boc himm taechepp in this book it is so written. Let him and tatt he loke wel patt he look carefully that be write it so, an bocstaff write twiggess for else he cannot write it correctly eggwhaer par itt uppo piss boc in English—of that be may be asiss writen o patt wise sured 1

loke well patt he’t write swa,
forr he ne magg nobht elless
on Ennglissh writenn rihht te word,
patt wite he well to sope.

There is another matter of orthography which is a philo

logical peculiarity with this author. When words that begin with p follow words ending in d or t, he generally (and with a few definite exceptions) alters the initial p to t. Where (for example) he has the three words past and ball and be succeeding one another continuously, he writes, not ball patt be, but patt tatt te. One important exception to this rule is where the word ending with the d or f is severed from the word beginning with p by a metrical pause; in that case the change does not take place, as— j agg affterr be Goddspell stannt and aye after the Gospel standeth patt tatt te Goddspell memepp. that which the Gospel meaneth. Here the stannt does not change the initial of the next word, because of the metrical division that separates them. Other examples of these peculiarities may be seen in the following eXtract.


Forr himm birrp beon full clene mann,
and all wipputenn ahhte,

Buttan patt mann himm findenn shall
unnorne mete and wade.

And taer iss all patt eorplig ping
patt minnstremann birrp aghenn,
Wipputenn cnif and shape and camb
and nedle, giff he’t geornepp.
And all piss shall mann findenn himm
and wel himm birrp itt gemenn;
For birrp himm nowwperr don paeroff,
ne gifenn itt ne sellenn.
And himm birrp aefre standenn inn
to lofenn Godd and wurrpenn,
And agg himm birrp beon fressh paerto
bi daggess and bi nihhtess;
And tat iss harrd and strang and tor
and hefig lif to ledenn,
And forbi birrp wel claww.stremann
onnfangenn mikell mede,
Att hiss Drihhtin Allwarldennd Godd,
forr whamm he mikell swinnkepp.
And all hiss herrte and all hiss lusst
birrp agg beon towarrd heoffne,
And himm birrp geornenn agg patt an
hiss Drihhtin wel to cwemenn,

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For he ought to be a very pure man and altogether without property, Except that be shall be found in simple meat and clothes. And that is all the earthly thing that minster-man should own, Except a knife and sheatb and comb and needle, if he want it. And all this shall they find for him and bis duty is to take care of it, For he may neither do with it, neither give it nor sell. And he must ever stand in (vigorously) to praise and worship God, And aye must be be fresh thereto by daytime and by nights; And that’s a bard and stiff and rough and heavy life to lead, And therefore well may cloister'd man receive a mickle meed At the band of bis Lord Allwielding God, for whom he mickle slaveth.

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