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West. He is both king and Duke of Lancaster;

And that the Lord of Westmoreland shall maintain. War. And Warwick shall disprove it. You forget

That we are those which chased you from the field And slew your fathers, and with colours spread March'd through the city to the palace gates. North. Yes, Warwick, I remember it to my grief;

And, by his soul, thou and thy house shall rue it. West. Plantagenet, of thee and these thy sons,

Thy kinsmen and thy friends, I'll have more lives
Than drops of blood were in my father's veins.
Clif. Urge it no more; lest that, instead of words,

I send thee, Warwick, such a messenger
As shall revenge his death before I stir.

War. Poor Clifford! how I scorn his worthless threats.
York. Will you we show our title to the crown?

If not, our swords shall plead it in the field.

K. Hen. What title hast thou, traitor, to the crown?
Thy father was, as thou art, Duke of York.
Thy grandfather, Roger Mortimer, Earl of March.
I am the son of Henry the Fifth,

Who made the Dauphin and the French to stoop,
And seized upon their towns and provinces.
War. Talk not of France, sith thou hast lost it all.
K. Hen. The lord protector lost it, and not I:

When I was crown'd I was but nine months old.

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He is the Lord... maintain] 82-84. Be... Why? he is. mainetaine Q. 89-92. And Warwick.


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those which chased

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fathers palace gates] 85-88. And Warwike.
father. pallas gates Q. 93, 94. Yes

rew it Q. 95-97. Plantagenet.

these thy

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Urge it.
his worthless
Clifford .

Plantagenet. of thy Then . vaines Q.
that, instead of words stir] 93-95.
stirre Q. 101-106. Poor Clifford .
not. Earl of March] 96-101. Poore
or else... earle of March Q.
stoop provinces] 102-104. I am
Dolphin stoope prouinces Q.
head] 105-109. Talk... since


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in revenge thereof

Will you. If

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107-109. I am . . Who made .. who tamde the French, And made the sith 110-114. Talk . usurper's Vsurper's head Q.


VI. II. ii. 8; and Troilus and Cressida, Iv. i. 69 :—

"For every false drop in her bawdy veins

A Grecian's life hath sunk." 107. I am the son] Johnson says Henry the Fifth's military reputation was the sole support of his son. The name dispersed the followers of Cade. 112. When I was crown'd] Henry

Rich. You are old enough now, and yet, methinks, you lose.
Father, tear the crown from the usurper's head.
Edw. Sweet father, do so; set it on your head.
Mont. Good brother, as thou lovest and honourest arms,
Let's fight it out and not stand cavilling thus.

Rich. Sound drums and trumpets, and the king will fly.
York. Sons, peace!


K. Hen. Peace thou! and give King Henry leave to speak. 120 War. Plantagenet shall speak first: hear him, lords;

And be you silent and attentive too,

For he that interrupts him shall not live.

K. Hen. Think'st thou that I will leave my kingly throne,
Wherein my grandsire and my father sat?
No: first shall war unpeople this my realm;
Ay, and their colours, often borne in France,
And now in England to our heart's great sorrow,
Shall be my winding-sheet. Why faint you, lords?

thou. me?




Peace sonnes Q. speake Q.


115. Sweet . . . head] 110. Do so sweet father, set . . . head Q. Good brother Sons, peace ] 111-114. Good brother 120. K. Hen. Peace thou!. speak] 115. Northum. Peace thou. 121-123. War. Plantagenet shall .. not live] omitted Q. 124. Think'st throne] 116-120. King. Ah Plantagenet, why seekest thou to depose Are we not both Plantagenets by birth, And from two brothers lineallie discent? Suppose by right and equitie thou be king, Thinkst thou . . . seate Q. 125-130. Wherein my grandsire father their colours... title's good his] 121-126. Wherein my father. titles better far than his Q.


was crowned at Westminster, Novem-
ber 6, 1429.
See 2 Henry VI. II. iii.
22-24 for the period (1437) when he
assumed the responsibility of govern-
ment. The reference here is to the
proclamation of "Prince Henry beyng
then about the age of ix Moneths with
sounde of Trumpets openly . . . King
of England & of Fraunce, the last daye
of August, 1422," by his uncles and
"the other Lordes of the counsayle"
(Grafton, i. 549). For his coronation
at Paris (at nine months old), see
Richard III. 11. iii. 16, 17.

118. lineallie discent] in Q. See note below at III. iii. 87.


118. Sound drums and trumpets] See again Part II. v. iii. 32, and note. below, v. vii. 45; and in Richard III. Several times in Locrine.

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.. our colours


all weak characters, he is petulantly authoritative at times.

126. unpeople this my realm] So Peele in David and Bethsabe (472, b, Dyce, 1874): "Unpeople Rabbah and the streets thereof." See Antony and Cleopatra, 1. v. 78. The King, in this whole scene, shows how his vacillations have been carefully attended to. And Marlowe, Tamburlaine, Part I. III. iii. (Dyce, 22, a) :

"Let him bring millions infinite of


Unpeopling Western Africa and

129. winding-sheet] grave-clothes. Not again in Shakespeare, except below, II. V. 114. Nashe (?) uses it in An Almond for a Parrot (ed. M'Kerrow, iii. 362), 1590: "hee will wrappe all your cleargie once agayne in Lazarus winding sheete."

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129. Why faint you] why funk "would be the synonym. Shakespeare dropped this use later. He has


My title's good, and better far than his.


War. Prove it, Henry, and thou shalt be king.

K. Hen. Henry the Fourth by conquest got the crown.
York. 'Twas by rebellion against his king.

K. Hen. [Aside.] I know not what to say: my title's weak. Tell me, may not a king adopt an heir?


York. What then?

K. Hen. An if he may, then am I lawful king;
For Richard, in the view of many lords,
Resign'd the crown to Henry the Fourth,
Whose heir my father was, and I am his.
York. He rose against him, being his sovereign,

And made him to resign his crown perforce.
War. Suppose, my lords, he did it unconstrain'd,
Think you 'twere prejudicial to his crown?
Exe. No; for he could not so resign his crown

But that the next heir should succeed and reign.



K. Hen. Art thou against us, Duke of Exeter?
Exe. His is the right, and therefore pardon me.
York. Why whisper you, my lords, and answer not?
Exe. My conscience tells me he is lawful king.


K. Hen. [Aside.] All will revolt from me, and turn to him. North. Plantagenet, for all the claim thou lay'st,

Think not that Henry shall be so deposed.

War. Deposed he shall be in despite of all.

North. Thou are deceived: 'tis not thy southern power,


131-135. Prove it . . . Henry the Fourth .. against his king. ... an heir?] 127-131. Proue it... Why Henrie the fourth... gainst his soueraigne


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an heire? Q. 136. York. What then?] 132. War. What then? Q. 137. An if he may] omitted Q. 137-140. then am I. For Richard . . am his] 133-136. Then am I ... For Richard The second am his Q. 141, 142. He rose . . . his crown perforce] 137, 138. I tell thee he rose . the crown perforce Q. 143, 144. Suppose, my lords . . . 'twere . crown?] 139, 140. Suppose my Lord. that were. the Crowne? Q. 145, 146. No. his crown. should. reign] 141, 142. No . . . the Crowne. must raigne Q. 147, 148. Art thou' me] 143, 144. Art thou 149, 150. York. Why whisper. Exe. My conscience... omitted Q. 151-154. All will . . . that Henry ・・・ so deposed. of all] 145-148. All will. thus deposde? of thee Q. 158. Thou art. Which of me] 149-152. Tush Warwike, Thou art Suffolke, Norffolke, and of Kent that .. of me Q.



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King Henry power... Kent, powers of Essex,

it in his poems, in Richard II., Richard III., Troilus and Cressida, and King John. This sense is noted on in Part III. (True Tragedy) at "fainting troops" (last scene); an expression of Marlowe's also. Compare Grafton's

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Of Essex, Norfolk, Suffolk, nor of Kent,

Which makes thee thus presumptuous and proud,
Can set the duke up in despite of me.
Clif. King Henry, be thy title right or wrong,
Lord Clifford vows to fight in thy defence:
May that ground gape and swallow me alive,
Where I shall kneel to him that slew my father!


K. Hen. O Clifford! how thy words revive my heart.
York. Henry of Lancaster, resign thy crown.


What mutter you, or what conspire you, lords?
War. Do right unto this princely Duke of York,

Or I will fill the house with armed men,
And o'er the chair of state, where now he sits,
Write up his title with usurping blood.

[He stamps with his foot, and the Soldiers
show themselves.

K. Hen. My Lord of Warwick, hear me but one word:
Let me for this my life-time reign as king.

York. Confirm the crown to me and to mine heirs,
And thou shalt reign in quiet while thou liv'st.
K. Hen. I am content: Richard Plantagenet,
Enjoy the kingdom after my decease.

159-162. Clif. King Henry

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shall kneel · father] 153-156. Cliff. King Henrie .. do kneale father Q. 163-169. O Clifford . heart. And o'er the chair usurping blood] 157-163. O Clifford my soule [Enter souldiers] And over the chaire. thy usurping bloud Q. 170, 171. K. Hen. My Lord. . . king] 164, 165. King. O Warwike, heare me speake. Let me but raigne in quiet whilst I liue Q. 172-175. Confirm .. thou liv'st. K. Hen. I am content. decease] 166-169. Confirme.. livest. King. Conuey the souldiers hence, and then I will. War. Captaine conduct them into Tuthill fieldes Q.

161. ground gape and swallow me] Compare Richard III. 1. ii. 65: "earth, gape open wide and eat him quick." Both from Peele perhaps :

"Gape earth and swallow me, and let my soul

Sink down to hell." (Edward I. 408, a.) As it comes off in Edward I., it would be impressive. Steevens quotes from Phaer's translation of the fourth Æneid: "But rather would I wish the ground to gape for me below." I have not verified it. See in Kyd, Cornelia: "O earth, why op'st thou not?" (bad news) (v. 39).

162. slew my father] See above, line 9, and line 55.


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Clif. What wrong is this unto the prince your son!
War. What good is this to England and himself!
West. Base, fearful, and despairing Henry!
Clif. How hast thou injured both thyself and us!
West. I cannot stay to hear these articles.
North. Nor I.

Clif. Come, cousin, let us tell the queen these news.
West. Farewell, faint-hearted and degenerate king,

In whose cold blood no spark of honour bides.
North. Be thou a prey unto the house of York,
And die in bands for this unmanly deed!
Clif. In dreadful war may'st thou be overcome,
Or live in peace abandon'd and despised!



[Exeunt North., Clif., and West. War. Turn this way, Henry, and regard them not. Exe. They seek revenge and therefore will not yield. K. Hen. Ah! Exeter.


Why should you sigh, my lord?

K. Hen. Not for myself, Lord Warwick, but my son,

Whom I unnaturally shall disinherit.

But be it as it may; I here entail

The crown to thee and to thine heirs for ever;

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176, 177. What wrong to England... himself!]_170, 171. What wrong. for England and himselfe ? Q. 178-182. West. Base ... Henry! Clif. How injured.. us! .. articles. North. Nor I. Clif. Come news] 172-175. Northum. Base Henry. Clif. How ... wronged Articles. [Exit.] Clif. Nor I. Come cosen lets go tell the 183, 184. West. Farewell bides] omitted Q. 185-188. Be unmanly deed despised] 176-179. Be thou despisde. Exit. Q. 189. Turn

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Queene Q.



They seek my lord.

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yield... thine heirs for ever] 180-186. They seeke yield thine heires, conditionallie Q.

186. die in bands] in confinement. Marlowe has it in Edward II.: "Weaponless must I fall, and die in bands?" (beginning of Act iii.) (Dyce, 202, a). A later play than The True Tragedie. 192-201. Not for myself... This oath ..] Grafton says: "After long arguments made. . . among the Peeres, Prelates, and commons of the realme; upon the vigile of all Saintes, it was condescended and agreed, by the three estates, for so much as King Henry had beene taken as King, by the space of xxxviij. yeres and more that he should enioy the name and tytle of king and haue possession of the realme, during his life naturall; And if he eyther died or resigned, or forfeited the same, for

infringing any point of this concorde, then the sayde Crowne and aucthoritie royall should immediately dissende to the Duke of Yorke, if he then lyued, or else to the next heyre of his line or linage, and that the Duke from thenceforth should be Protector and Regent of the land. Provided alway, that if the King did closely or apertly studie or go about to breake or alter this agrement, or to compasse or imagine the death or destruction of the sayde Duke or hys bloud, then he to forfeit the crowne, and the Duke of Yorke to take it. These articles with many other, were not only written, sealed and sworne by the two parties; but also were enacted in the high court of Parliament

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