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do in our own land, where our title is recognised, standing in a public, wellordered assembly, and on an eminent place; but as our Lord Jesus Christ and . His Apostles most commonly preached, at first—by discourse, and conversation; this they did by the wayside, in the house, in the solitude of a desert place, or on the top of a mountain; to the many, or the few; to the captious Pharisees, to disreputable publicans and sinners, or to faithful women. Wherever you are, preach, in the purpose of your mind, constantly: be you ever ready to press forward some good word, for the enlightening, awakening, reproving, establishing, or comforting those that are near to you. You will, also, even aim at preaching by example; thus shewing the people what you choose, and what you shun. Everywhere preach peace by Jesus Christ— all that this implies—nothing else ; exhibiting this grand doctrine, both by clear instructions, and by its visi. ble influence on all your conversation and conduct. On this simple plan, you may expect a blessing from on High, to rest eventually on your labours. • Should it, in process of time, appear eligible to attempt something in the way of Schools, this, it must be borne in mind, is a course which will require, from those who engage in it, much patience, the continual stopping in one place long together, and unwearied perseverance. From these considerations we are led to infer, that while your number is so small in Abyssinia, the establishment of Schools to any considerable extent will not be the first or most immediate call on the employment of your time. It is, however, an excellent plan, ourselves to learn by teaching others: on this principle it would be very desirable to encourage young and teachable persons to come about you. There is one subject deeply connected with the comfort and usefulness of a Missionary, on which, although you are already acquainted with the judgment of the Committee,

they-deem it expedient to record their views in the present address, for the purpose of impressing the reasons of their judgment more strongly on both your minds who are now entering on the Mission to Abyssinia, and of others who may hereafter engage in it; they refer to the subject of marriage. It is by the Committee, on the one hand, borne in mind, that the temptations and trials of a Missionary in Abyssinia may be expected to be very great: on the other hand, it is to be recollected that the Mission thither is, at the outset, and will probably for some considerable time continue to be, one of great uncertainty, hazard, and inconvenience. We know not, as yet, whether a single Missionary will be able to obtain a footing in that country, even for himself: the experiment must be tried; and it must fully succeed, before it would be justifiable either to augment the probable burdens of the Missionary himself, or to hazard the personal safety of a Female in so turbulent a state of things, or to expose the plans and the funds of the Society to the risk of very disastrous and painful consequences. The Committee will only add, that they hope that the arrangements, adopted under a view of these circumstances, will be found to meet the peculiar difficulties of the case; and that, through the mercy of God, access and security will eventually be obtained for Missionary Families in Abyssinia. On another topic, likewise, the Committee wish to impress a few remarks upon your minds, when in the Levant: it is that of Journalwriting. Some observations made by the Missionary Brethren in that quarter, lead the Committee to apprehend that they view this matter under some false lights. Without full information, regularly transmitted, it must obviously be impracticable for the Committee to superintend and direct the Missions of the Society with intelligence and effect : neither will the sympathy of the Members of the Society at large be

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duly awakened to the state of the people to whom the Missionary is sent, or to the labours of the Missionary himself. This information will be most advantageously communicated in the form of Journals; and should be punctually transmitted to the Committee, by the first opportunity after each Quarter-day. In preparing your Journals, the first point to be attended to is a rigid adherence to truth. To secure this point, so essential and important, it will be requisite that the Missionary should habituate himself to examine closely all that passes around him, and to exercise a calm and deliberate judgment in drawing his conclusions. On all matters of fact, leave no means unemployed in order to obtain authentic and accurate information. In all your communications, be very much alive to the fact, that the Committee are necessarily uninformed of many things which are grown quite familiar to you. The communications of Missionaries often fail of producing the intended and desirable effect, from their obscurity. Use no term which is not familiar to English ears, without a brief explanation. Agree on the orthography of proper names, and never deviate.

III. The Committee would now address to yourself and your absent Missionary Brother a few cautionary hints. . 1. They would earnestly impress on your minds, that it is their desire and expectation that you should, in your travels, not separate one from the other, but keep together as much as possible. Your Mission to Abyssinia is arduous, as it regards both the physical and moral difficulties to be encountered. United counsels, united residence, and united movements will be your best security; and the best guarantee to the Society at home, that things are going on as well as circumstances may admit. If you should have enemies to your work, they will most probably endeavour to counteract you by detaching you one from the other. This

is the policy of wicked and crafty men; and of Satan, who is the author of strife. Frustrate their plots, by being united and in company together, wherever it is practicable. Study the reasons which the wisest of men has given (Ecc. iv. 9–12) in support of the maxim, that Two are better than one. These reasons will apply, with peculiar emphasis, to your circumstances in Abyssinia; where the prospect of difficult success, the hazard of dangerous falls, the chilling atmosphere of abounding iniquity, and the formidable array of enemies to the Truth, all seem to bid the two Missionaries, who may be permitted to enter that region, “not to part company.” 2. Another point on which the Committee feel peculiar anxiety, is, the various relations which you may be under the necessity of bearing towards the different Governors and Chieftains of Abyssinia, or, in case of residence in one spot, to any of these Governors. Travellers, who have gone before you, into the uncivilized or distracted regions of Africa, have usually taken a course which throws, except by contrast, very little light on what should be your line of proceeding. They have not unfrequently adopted the plan of identifying themselves with whatever quarrel they might find on the spot; they have taken sides: and when they have wanted to push on to other regions, they have been ready to change sides. How, in every place, to avail yourselves of the best civil protection, without becoming a party to any, is a practical problem of extremely arduous solution. For example, on entering the Province of Tigré, and placing yourselves under the protection of Subagadis, you will appear in the eyes of the inhabitants of Abyssinia, who will soon know of the arrival of the two European strangers, to have identified yourselves, as men of the world would express it, with all his fortunes. The coincident circumstance, that this powerful Chief. tain is now seeking a friendly relation with Great Britain, will greatly strengthen this impression; and will aid those who would maliciously circulate the idea, that you are, at bottom, engaged in some political scheme. And what pushes this inconvenience still further is, that, among the rival Provinces of Abyssinia, alliances are generally sought, not for friendly commercial purposes, but for the sake of offensive war and conquest. Your coming, therefore, from Europe, your very complexion, will render you objects of suspicion: from whomsoeveryou seek protection, you will be accounted his devoted allies and servants: no medium will, in the general sentiment, be allowed to you : you may call yourselves neutral, but the benefit of your plea will be reluctantly granted to you, and even the proofs of your neutrality will be doubtfully accepted. Partisanship they understand: political feigning, and hypocrisy, they understand: double-dealing, treachery, and changing of sides, they understand: but disinterested, impartial, equal good-will to all alike, is a feature of character well nigh unknown to them : it is, indeed, described in their Sacred Books; for they possess, and you also will bring to them, the Gospels. But bear in mind, that the most part of them will not read your books: they will read you ; and it may be long before they will, to any considerable extent or degree, believe that your purposes are not of this world. It may be well, both for the advantage of Christians at home and for your own caution, to enlarge a little more on this topic. Civil war is, we know, continually agitating one province or another of Abyssinia. Pure necessity may involve you in the train of their campaigns. As medical attendants, as fugitives for safety, you may be found, sometimes advancing, sometimes retreating, associated with men, or implicated in circumstances from which a Christian Missionary would gladly stand at the remotest distance. However pure his motives may be, however pacific and useful his conduct, these

are not often the points regarded in the afflicting turns of civil war. Very generally, at such times—they are times too frequent, alas ! in Abyssinia—the only question about a man, when captured, is, “Where was he found " not, “What is he?” or, “What has he been doing?” Sympathy for what may hereafter be your personal feelings, and anxiety for the prosperity of your Mission, both prompt these remarks. Clearly to understand, and practically to apply them, in all their peculiar bearings on your Mission to Abyssinia, will require, both experience, and a large measure of that wisdom which is from above. The general tendency of our views on the subject may be summed up in this brief cautionary hint:—to engage as little as practicable in secular pursuits; and, especially, not to be party to the secular pursuits of others, excepting in cases where your own needful maintenance, or the exercise of works of mercy, may absolutely require you so to do. 8. The mention of ‘works of mercy occasions us to recur to the circumstance of Mr. Kugler having obtained some knowledge of the practice of Medicine. Of the advantages of this attainment we have already spoken. Of the dangers attending it, the Committee would only in few words say, that this profession not only gives an introduction, in the East, as you have already had occasion to know, to men of rank and influence; but also opens the way to scenes or conversations of the most licentious and depraving tendency. Ambition and sensuality, in consequence, might be snares easily besetting those who should practise Medicine in Abyssinia. But we trust that you have learned to seek, by watchfulness and prayer, to withstand the temptations of the world, the flesh, and the devil. In general, the Committee recommend that you should under no circumstances assume the office of a Physician, but employ the Medical Knowledge you have attained as a

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gratuitous act of kindness, and merely in subordination to your Missionary objects. 4. In your intercourse with the Natives, it is of great importance that you should constantly exercise a watchful self-controul in the ordinary subjects of conversation. While your conduct is closely watched, your words will be observed and repeated by the Natives ; they will fasten their own meaning on what you say : or, by placing it in a different connection from that in which it was spoken, will give to it a construction the very reverse, perhaps, of that which you intended. Hence arises the obvious duty of discreetly selecting, both proper seasons and fit subjects for the expression of your sentiments; and, while you bear in mind that there is a time to keep silence, and a time to speak, you will endeavour, by the Grace of Christ, to follow the Scriptural precept—Walk in wisdom toward them that are without, redeeming the time. Let your speech be alway with grace, seasoned with salt, that ye may know how ye ought to answer every man. 5. But the difficulties attendant on your Civil Relations in Abyssinia will probably be small, in comparison with those which may arise from the position of your Missionary Work in reference to the Ecclesiastical Hierar. chy of that country. Wherever a great deadness in Religious Concerns has prevailed for a length of time in any professing Christian Community, the first attempts to raise the standard of piety, by introducing spiritual books, spiritual conversations, and spiritual habits of life, generally meet with the most determined opposition; especially from those persons, who, by virtue of their office, ought to have been themselves leaders in every thing good, and who, consequently, feel that the exertions of others cast a reproach upon themselves. Of this, your acquaintance with the New-Testament History, and your experience in various countries, has made you well aware. But

to this consideration you must add another, as it refers to Abyssinia: besides the hostility which would be felt by the Clergy of that country to any individual of their own nation stirring up the people to measures of reformation, it is to be expected that they will feel a peculiar jealousy toward persons foreign both to their Nation and to their Church. Their celebrated hospitality to strangers will, there is cause to fear, not be very willingly extended to those who may be regarded by them as troublers of their country. Should they conceive that matters are likely to be pushed too far, they may, in a vindictive moment, raise the clamour against you, This sume man came to sojourn amongst us, and he will needs be a ruler and a judge. They have also a peculiar cunning, an almost malignant sagacity, in selecting those points of religious controversy which may most exasperate the feelings of their own people, or tempt a Missionary to speak unadvisedly : thus aiming to widen the breach which they would gladly effect between yourselves and their countrymen. It is needful to notice these particulars, in order, that when you are invited to enter upon the ground of doubtful disputation, you may know how, with wisdom and a good conscience, to decline the invitation. Study—for it is peculiarly applicable to the circumstances of an enlightened and devout Christian labouring in the midst of a benighted and corrupted Oriental Church—study that spirit of moderation, delicacy, and caution, which was exhibited by the Apostles toward their countrymen the Jews, and toward their Converts from among the Gentiles. Although they acted, and spoke, and wrote under the immediate inspiration of the Holy Ghost, and foreknew certainly the approaching dissolution of the Jewish Polity, yet, in Ritual Observances, such as, Circumcision, Washings, the Change of the Sabbath, Fasts, Attendance at the Temple and in the Synagogues, and generally in all the discipline of the Old Covenant, which was waxing old, and ready to vanish away, they were temperate, conformable, conciliatory, and largehearted. They were, especially, backward to dispute, excepting when Ceremonial Observances were abused, to disparage the doctrine of free justification by faith in Christ, or substituted for the inward sanctification of the heart by the operation of the Holy Spirit. Imitate them, by continually insisting, in the simplest and most practical manner, on the two cardinal doctrines of the Gospel, Justification and Sanctification ; and waive, as much as possible, those contentions, which are unprofitable and Waln. 6. The Committee have it in contemplation immediately to set apart two Students, to be prepared for the Abyssinian Mission. Those Students will avail themselves of the advantages afforded them for obtaining an acquaintance with the vernacular dialect of Tigré, by the temporary residence in this country of a Native of Abyssinia; and, after having received Episcopal Ordination, will, if the providence of God permit, become your Fellow-labourers in the Gospel. 7. Probably there may arise, in the course of a short time after your arrival in Abyssinia, some individuals manifesting a desire to listen to you, and even to adhere to you. We would not willingly teach you a premature and excessive caution, or inflict upon your ardent minds a needless degree of chilly suspicion and reservc. But, keeping pace only with your own experience in the Levant, we observe that it must have become obvious to you, that, sometimes, they who are most forward in their first professions of attachment, when the time of trial comes, fall back, and disappoint our hopes. The general ignorance, fickleness, and even duplicity which mark the character of many of the Members of the Oriental Churches must have been sufficiently apparent to you, to put you on your guard. You wish to see some fruits

of your labours; and the delight of seeing some appearance of those fruits must, therefore, be tempered with that sound discernment which knows what is in man—knows, not, as in the case of our Lord, by divine intuition, but by the experience of the deceitful conduct of others, and by the experience of the treacherous movements of our own hearts. Think not, beloved Brethren, (for we address ourselves both to the present and to the absent, as being both present in the spirit,) that we can ever be insensible to the difficulties which attend your course, both from without and from within. We deeply feel, that the most arduous part of your work will consist, after all, in drawing out and training up genuine Converts from amidst a body of men professing the name, but strangers to the doctrine and spirit of Christ. And what we most tenderly feel, as it regards yourselves personally, in this work, is the necessity which it lays you under, of your being yourselves men of a simple, evangelical spirit. If thine eye be single, thine whole body shall be full of light. If you dwell, year after year, with steadiness, honesty, and consistency; exhibiting, to the men of Abyssinia, what that work is which the Spirit of God works upon the hearts of His Children in secret; He will no doubt, in due season, reward you openly. Be not impatient for His time: at the last it shall come : it shall not tarry : only give Him mean while no rest, but labour in watchings and prayers—that ye being such as God would have you to be, ye may be enabled to say to your Abyssinian hearers, Be ye followers of us, as we also are of Christ. 8. We are not unmindful of the numerous difficulties which will beset your path, or of the internal and external enemies which you will have to encounter: but we would remind you of that which you have been taught from above, that Christ will supply you with strength to cope with them. The fulness of Grace is in Him, and the promise of that Grace

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