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5853 1890

PREFACE.

MAIN

This edition of Sallust's Bellum. Catilinae is based on the third edition of the work by Director J. H. Schmalz.

Director Schmalz' extensive scholarship, his profound knowledge of the grammatical and stylistic peculiarities of the Latin prose writers, and his experience as a teacher, eminently fitted him to edit the writings of Sallust for the class-room. The favorable reception his Sallust has had in Germany, proves that it fully meets all the requirements of the latest scholarship.

In adapting Schmalz' work to the needs of American schools, his text - which in the main is Jordan's - has not been changed, except as regards the punctuation. This has been altered, so as to conform to American usage. As in the United States Sallust is most frequently read by students who are not so far advanced in their Latin studies as those for whom Schmalz' book was prepared, additional notes on grammar, style, and translation have been added wherever it seemed useful. For the same reason a departure has been made from Schmalz practice in another particular. While he confines his historical comments to the narrowest limits, it has been thought best here to make them as complete and helpful as possible. The Introduction is entirely independent of Schmalz.

In preparing the historical matter, frequent use has been made of the Jacobs-Wirz edition of Sallust. For the grammatical notes, besides Schmalz, I have had recourse to the editions of Jacobs-Wirz, Dietsch, and Kritz; also to Inaugural Dissertations by P. Schultze and F. Uber, to a Programm by Dr. Prammer, and to Wölfflin's Archiv.

In conclusion I take pleasure in thanking Director Schmalz for his courteous permission to make his Sallust the basis of the present edition of the Bellum Catilinae. To Prof. E. M. Pease, the editor-in-chief of this series, I am deeply obliged for many and important suggestions; also to Prof. J. K. Lord. Both of these gentlemen, moreover, had the kindness to read the proof with the greatest care and conscientiousness. Lastly, I return thanks to Dr. J. C. Morgenthau and Mr. J. F. Mulqueen, of the College of the City of New York, for repeated and courteous aid given me in the progress of the work.

CHARLES GEORGE HERBERMANN.

NEW YORK, October 10, 1890.

INTRODUCTION.

I. LIFE OF SALLUST.

C. SALLUSTIUS CRISPUS, or Sallust, as we usually call him, was a native of Amiternum, a town of some importance in the Sabine hills. Born in the year 86 B.C., the year of Marius' death, he may be said to have been cradled amidst revolution and bloodshed. His boyhood and youth were no more fortunate. Rome was assailed by war from without and disorder from within. Mithradates in Asia (78–63 B.c.) and Sertorius in Spain (78–72) for years defied the power of the imperial republic. In Italy Lepidus (78) renewed the terrors of civil war, and Spartacus for two years (73–71) led his army of gladiators and revolted slaves up and down the peninsula, scattering death and dismay. Rome itself was the scene of riots and bloodshed. Ambitious young ruffians, like P. Clodius, at the head of armed mobs, took possession of its streets. Honors and power were the reward of bribery and lawless violence. Scenes like these must have left their impress on the clever and aspiring youth from the Sabine hills. Ambition, he himself tells us, seized his soul.1 It would have been strange, had he kept his heart and mind uncontaminated by the prevailing corruption.

When Sallust left Amiternum for Rome, we do not know. Nor are we better informed about the progress of his education. All we can say is, that when he plunged into the current of Roman politics, he had already made serious studies in Greek and Latin literature. A passage in the Bellum Catilinae 2 suggests that even before entering upon his political career, Sallust had literary aspirations. They certainly bore no fruit at that time.

1 Bellum Cat. III. 4.

2 Ibid. II. 2.

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Sallust from the first espoused the popular cause, of which Caesar was already the chief champion. It was probably during Caesar's first consulship in 59 B.C., that Sallust was elected to the quaestorship, the first step in political preferment at Rome. Since Sulla's time the office brought with it a seat in the Senate. Some years later we meet him again, as tribune of the Commons. The times were stormy; bloody street-fights between the hired bands of P. Clodius, the chief democratic ruffian, and the henchmen of T. Annius Milo, the champion of the Senate, were the order of the day. Law-abiding citizens feared a catastrophe from hour to hour. At last it came. Clodius was slain by Milo. The corpse was brought to the Forum. Excited throngs hurried to gaze once more on the features of the dead leader. Everything was ready for an explosion. Patriotism made moderation and prudent counsels the duty of every citizen, especially of every leader. But Sallust obeyed party passion rather than patriotism. With the other young leaders of the popular party, Sextus Clodius, Munatius Plancus, and Pompeius Rufus, he raised his voice, not to calm, but to excite the mob. He launched forth a furious harangue against Milo. Suddenly a new impulse seized the frantic crowds. Clodius' corpse was carried into the Curia Hostilia; the benches were torn up and gathered into a heap, and the senate-house became the funeral pile of Rome's foremost ruffian. The reaction came soon. Plancus, Rufus, Clodius, were sent into exile, but Sallust escaped. Not for long, however. Two years afterwards (50 B.c.) the censor Appius Claudius Pulcher struck Sallust's name, along with many others, off the official list of the Senate, on the ground that he led a scandalous life. Unluckily there is too much reason to think that the charge was not baseless; and yet it is hard to believe that the censor's action was not dictated chiefly by politics. Like many other prominent men in the popular party, Sallust took refuge in Caesar's camp. When, in the year following, Caesar entered Rome as its master, Sallust received the quaestorship as the reward of his services, and again became a senator. During the civil war he fought on Caesar's side, and Caesar seems to have had confidence in his ability and loyalty. When the legions in Campania revolted and slew the senators sent to them by the dictator, he intrusted Sallust with the delicate mission of bringing them back to their allegiance. Sallust was unsuccessful and barely escaped with his life. In fact, it took all of Caesar's magnetism and moral sway to master the revolt. When Caesar crossed into Africa to put down the Pompeian forces there, Sallust at the head of a fleet seized the island of Cercina, and its well-stored granaries, and relieved Caesar of anxiety on the subject of his supplies. In short, he rendered such service to his chief during this campaign, that after the battle of Thapsus (46 s.c.) he was rewarded with the governorship of the enlarged province of Africa. The praetorship had been conferred on him some time before. In his province Sallust seems to have been the typical Roman governor whom he denounces so eloquently in his writings. When he returned he was assailed by numerous charges of bribery and extortion. He was tried by Caesar, who acquitted him : after his acquittal Sallust retired from political life, though some passages in his writings lead us to suspect that the measure of his ambition was far from full. Sallust's acquittal by Caesar no more establishes his innocence than his condemnation by Appius Claudius Pulcher, in 50 B.C., proves his guilt of the crimes laid to his charge. So much is certain, that when Sallust retired into private life, he was a very rich man. His palace, at the foot of the Quirinal Hill, which was discovered in 1885, astounds us to-day by its size and the remains of its splendor. Only the master of great wealth could have reared it. Shortly after Sallust's retirement, Caesar met his doom; and if Sallust had still any ambitious hopes, this event must have put an end to them.

In his leisure, Sallust's active mind turned to literature. Modern critics are agreed that it was only now that he began to write the works which have immortalized his name. His

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