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will, probably, surprise you. I have not altered a word in it: you see it is in very good English. This Gentleman's Father had formerly considerable power: he now governs his own district, which is subordinate to Cuddapah. The Father and his whole family (excepting, I think, one son) have adopted the English Dress; and are so warmly attached to us, that the numerous Englishmen travelling that road meet with the most bountiful hospitality in the palace, and the kindest possible attentions throughout the district. The Father knows and thinks little about Christianity; but Nanah reads the Bible regularly in English, and you see how he expresses himself. A year-and-half ago I had some interesting conversations with this Young Man, on the truths and glorious prospects of Christianity. Punganoor, itself, would perhaps be an excellent station for a Missionary : the climate there is sharply cold.
.Masulipatam and Rajahmundry.
With respect to the legal authorities, the Zillahs of Masulipatam and Rajahmundry have been thrown into one; though the Collectorates still remain separate. The Collectorate of Masulipatam is bounded, on the north, by the Nizam's Territory; on the south, by the Sea; on the east, by the Rajahmundry Collectorate; and, on the west, by the river Kishna, on the other side of which is the Collectorate of Guntoor. The Collectorate of Rajahmundry is bounded, on the north, by the Nizam's Territory and the Mahratta Country; on the south, by the Sea ; on the east, by the Vizagapatam Zillah ; and, on the west, by the Masulipatam Collectorate. These two Collectorates comprise a tract of land lying between the 16th and 18th degrees of North Latitude, and 78°. 30’ and 81° East Longitude. The Religions of the inhabitants if the two Collectorates are the Hin.
doe, Mahomedan, Roman-Catholic, and Protestant.
The Languages generally spoken throughout the two Collectorates are the Gentoo, the Hindoostanee, and the Portuguese.
The generality of the Natives are not thought so rich as to the southward. The Mahomedans and Hindoos are more at variance here, than I have seen them at other places: the Mahomedans endeavour to interrupt the festivals of the Hindoos, pretending a great hatred for idolatry and contempt of the gross conceptions of the Deity entertained by the Hindoos. It is, however, to be feared, that political prejudice, and a galling remembrance of departed empire, have a greater share in producing this abhorrence of idols, than any love of spiritual worship. If the Committee call to their remembrance the annals of this country, they will recollect that the Deccan, in which is comprised the tract of land now under consideration, was early subdued by the Moguls, after they obtained a fooling in the North of India; and that, from the great distance of the Provinces from Delhi, the persons delegated from that Court soon threw off the yoke, and established many petty but independent principalities throughout the country; and, when no longer subject to the controul of the enlarged views which more or less influence the counsels of an Empire, they gave loose to all the bigotry, malevolence, and profligacy of the Mahomedan Character; and their concentrated, though confined power, not feeling the national importance of their Hindoo Subjects, took advantage of their personal insignificance, and trampled with unexampled ferocity upon those religious prejudices which Protestant Toleration has always protected and worldly policy has humoured. These considerations afford some clue to enable us to account for the peculiar hostility, which exists between the Mahomedans and Hindoos in this part of the world.
I have written thus at length respecting the clashing feelings of these two great sects, because the Deism of the Mahomedans appears to me to be the great link of connection between the Polytheism of the Hindoos and Christianity. Those who abhor idols and testify against them, are, in the literal sense of the words, not so much the Christians taken as a body, as the Mahomedans; who, being more literal in understanding the prohibition against idolatry, level their anathemas, not against the spiritual worship of the creature, but against the outward reverence shewn to wood and stone. This mode of preaching is more offensive to the Hindoos, than any reproof that is founded on a moral theory. Any thing that tends to separate these two classes of unbelievers in feeling and interest, is—allowing the premises, that I have assumed, to be true—of the deepest importance. The Christian Inhabitants of the Masulipatam Collectorate, inhabit Masulipatam and Ellore : they consist of Roman Catholics and Protestants. Their languages are, the Gentoo, Portuguese, and Malabar. Their occupations are those of Writers, Sepoys, Fifers, and Drummers. In the Rajahmundry Zillah, Christians inhabit Samulcottah, Palancole, Jaganathpooram, Yanam, and Coringah. Of the actual state of these people, their numbers, or by whom they were founded, I have not been able to obtain any authentic information. I should imagine that the French, Dutch, and Portuguese, who have small settlements about here, must, at different periods, have brought a good many Natives within the pale of the Catholic and Calvinistic Churches. The Dutch, if I mistake not, had a Settlement in this District, as early as the 16th Century. The languages of Christians in the Rajahmundry District, are, French, Gentoo, Malabar, and Portuguese. With the exception of Dutch Serwants in different occupations, Mer
chants, and Mariners, the rest of the Christians in the Rajahmundry Collectorate follow the same occupations as those in the Masulipatam. If there was any peculiar feature in the character of the Natives of this district, I should say, that they had a mixture of the political profligacy which they acquired from the Mahomedans, and of the absence of moral feeling which is interwoven with the genius of Hindooism. They have, however, many of the quiet virtues; and I have, even in the short time that I have been in this Zillah, seen instances of courage and independence that I rarely saw to the southward ; and when we add to this, the characteristic and even elegant appearance of the meanest Ryots who till the soil, the Natives of this country have an imposing appearance, which is grateful to the eye of the philanthropist. Oaths, at Masulipatam, may be purchased as easily as rice ; and the venders of both consider themselves as equally following a lawful calling : the consequence is, that witnesses in Civil Suits are considered as of no value. The Natives here have extracted from their obscure books of divinity an opiate for the conscience, as politically mischievous as it is morally absurd ; it is this—they consider the common oath, as administered in the Company's Courts, as of little obligation, though they themselves appeal to it as the test of their veracity ; and an oath, called “Ghora Primanum,” is frequently resorted to by the parties in a suit, where the points of a case are proved by evidence and not by documents. This form of oath consists in the witness being taken to a Hindoo Temple, and being required to repeat his testimony before sacrificial fire : when this has been done, persons have been known to contradict every word which they uttered when only under the terrors of the common oath. This is rarely resorted to, exceptamong the Natives themselves; but some of the Company's Judges have permitted it. The Brahmins, in these two Collectorates, appear to be more employed in the active business of life, than they are to the southward. The Videkooloos, or Begging Brahmins, who are the only persons who abide by the letter of the Hindoo Law, which prescribes begging as the only lawful means by which the sacerdotal caste can earn their livelihood, are universally considered as a degraded *people, by their fellow Brahmins who conform more to the fashion of the world, and by engaging in business acquire pecuniary independence and theological indifference. One of the causes of this contempt of the people who devote themselves more especially to the service of the Heathen Deities, arises from their not having any lands free from all kinds of tax granted to them ; as they have to the southward, and even so near this place as the Nellore Zillah. What effect this may have upon the religious feeling of the Hindoo Inhabitants of this part of the country, is for the consideration of the Committee. With regard to the qualifications of Missionaries who might be sent hither, a thorough grammatical and practical knowledge of the Gentoo Language is a chief requisite. They ought to be men of judgment, temper, and pleasing affable manners. A knowledge of the Hindoo Mythology would give them an insight into the causes, which operate in making a Hindoo the moral anomaly, that the ablest Missionaries have pronounced him to be.
Wizagapatam. The towns of this District are Wizagapatam, Chicacole, Ganjam, Berhampoor, Vizianagram, together with many considerable villages filled with inhabitants; the general character of whom is, industrious, but poor. The climate is good, and generally healthy for the European constitution. The Hindoo is the most prevalent Religion; and the Language, Teloo
goo. In respect of Occupation, the people are pretty generally Weavers and Cultivators. The castes are of all those of India: there are many of the Brahminical, who are as well taught as in most other parts of the country, and strongly attached to their own system. There has been a Protestant Mission at Vizagapatam for upward of 12 years. Some few Roman Catholics are here, among whom may be numbered a few Natives who are from Madras: they do not appear to direct their attention to the Natives in any way. This is the only place in the district where any attention is
paid to the instruction of the Na
tives: even here, there is room for many more Labourers: multitudes are perishing for lack of knowledge. Chicacole is a field, which might be occupied to great advantage by a Protestant Missionary. There is a Native School, established by a pious Lady, who has long been desirous of the aid which an active Missionary might afford. The character of the Natives there, as has been found by the visit of the Missionaries from Vizagapatam, is docile, and ready to receive instruction in Christianity. The town is very thickly inhabited, and generally by Hindoos: there are some Mahomedans, but they are very indifferent respecting their faith. This town is a most eligible place for a Missionary Establishment; as, from it, in every direction, the residents might itinerate to a considerable distance, among numerous and closelyinhabited villages, which have been found ready to hear the truth. Some years ago a Mission was commenced at Ganjam; but,” in consequence of the sickliness of the place, it was abandoned, and has not since been renewed. It promised very fair at that time : a small Chapel was built, and a School or two begun i but, although the healthiness of the Station has returned, no attempt has been made to revive the Mission, nor is there the least present prospect of
its being again occupied. From this town, too, which is well situated for itinerating, Missionaries might, in every direction, go forth and declare the glad tidings of the Gospel: they might make frequent visits to the far. famed Juggernaut, and disperse the Scriptures and Tracts in various languages. In a journey, made some time since by one of the Missionaries of Vizagapatam to the north-west, at Vizianagram and around it were found many very populous towns and villages, where, in consequence of the inhabitants being poor, very few Brahmins were observed: the people were generally attentive to the Gospel, and seemed desirous of instruction. Here are thousands and tens of thousands, who appear like the fields white unto the harvest. To the southward of that station, the towns and villages are very numerous and populous; but no means are employed for their improvement in Christian Knowledge. Schools might be established in each; and a Missionary, centrally situated, might employ himself togreat advantage among them : from thence, to the distance of 300 miles, the same language is universal, over which space are scattered hundreds of thousands, without one to declare, in their hearing, that there is a Saviour willing and ready to embrace, in the arms of His love and mercy, the guilty and the helpless. The Facilities are many in this district. The Teloogoo is spoken, with greater purity than to the southward. The New Testament is translated, and circulated to a considerable extent; and the Old Testament is in a considerable state of forwardness. There are Grammars and Dictionaries of the language already prepared, so that a Missionary would have nothing to prevent his immediate entry on his work. The Obstacles are no other here, than what Satan has long presented to the conversion of the Heathen :
and men of faith, patience, prayer, and diligence would overcome them, by the blessing of heaven on their persevering labours. These are the principal qualifications requisite for a Missionary in these parts: it is presumed that he understands his Bible, and has love to his work and the souls of the perishing Heathen. In some places, the people have frequently expressed their desire that Schools should be set up among them; and, in their visits to Vizagapatam, have addressed the resident Missionaries on the subject; but, either for want of means or the difficulty of attending to them personally, (for nothing, in this way, can be of any real or lasting benefit without personal superintendence,) they have not extended the establishment of schools beyond the town and villages around where they reside. In a journey, some little time since, as far as Innacondah, it was found that the Teloogoo is the prevailing language of the people. In the different towns and villages at which the travellers halted, the Scriptures and Tracts were distributed, and frequently an apparent interest was excited to what was said on their contents; and, in many places, considerable concern was expressed that they had none to instruct them : even Brahmins have seemed to desire to know more than the residence of a Sabbath or evening among them gave an opportunity to impart. The traveller was often delighted to find them so ready to hear; and the readiness with which many received the books, and the eagerness with which groupes of them were seen reading and conversing on their contents, gave a pleasing hope, that, if there were persons among them competent to afford them instruction, they were ready to receive it. Over that whole extent of country, only two places of Christian Worship were observed: they were of the Roman-Catholic Faith, with not more than 10 or 12 families attached to them. Some of the principal towns in this line are, Samulcottah, Rajanagrum, Petapooram, Rajahmundry, Ellore, and Guntoor—containing from 90,000 to 100,000 inhabitants, generally poor; consequently not much under Brahminical influence. Around these