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produce their accounts to him. The foreign seminaries, says Aquaviva, and the whole cause of the English catholics, depending principally on the king of Spain, and frequent recourse to his court being on this account necessary, the prefect of the missions was ordinarily to reside in Spain, but, in his absence, some person, appointed by the general of the order, was to reside there; some jesuit also was to reside in Flanders.-He was to attend to the general concerns of the catholic body, and particularly to the concerns of the foreign seminaries; but, except on pressing occasions, he was not to intermeddle with the concerns of individuals.

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Aquaviva behaved, on several occasions, with great generosity, towards the English catholics. In reply to a charge, brought against father Persons, of diverting, to the use of the society, several sums of money designed for the general use of the English catholics, he thus expresses himself: "If "it can be proved, that the body of the society, or any man thereof, had to their use received out "of England, not two hundred thousand crowns," (one of the sums, which he was charged with receiving), "but two hundred pence, to be bestowed "in benefit of the said society, and not on Eng❝lishmen, or the English cause, then I am content "that all the rest objected by the slanderers should "be granted for true.-Mr. Charles Basset, Mr.


George Gilbert, and others, left divers good sums "of money, freely given to the said society, or to be disposed by them at their pleasure; and namely, "the latter of the two left, by testament yet extant,


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eight hundred crowns, in gift to the house of pro"bation of St. Andrews at Rome: whereof, or of any "other such gift, the general that now is, Claudius "Aquaviva, would never suffer any one penny to "be admitted, either to the use of the society or "to any friend of theirs, but only to be distributed "to Englishmen in necessity, and to the use of the 66 English cause, as it was. And the college of "Rheims had of this and of other money left by "the same gentleman, when he died, to the arbi"trement of the said jesuits, two thousand crowns "in gold, and the body of the society never a penny, as to this day appeareth by manifest "records*".

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The establishments thus founded and organized by father Persons, were lasting monuments of his zeal for religion, the persevering energy of his mind, his talents, and his address. It is to be observed, that great harmony subsisted between him and Dr. Allen; it is admitted that Persons was highly instrumental in procuring for his friend the cap of cardinal.

Manifestation, p. 10 a.



ANCIENT and modern history differ in nothing so much, as the absence of religious wars and controversies from the former, and the large space which they occupy in the latter. During the successive periods of the Assyrian, Persian, Macedonian, and Roman empires, the grand political division of the world was, into the states within the sway of those powerful empires, and the states beyond it. At the end of the fifth century of the christian æra, by far the greater part of Europe was Roman; but, after the death of Trajan, the Romans ceased to be conquerors; and soon afterwards the barbarians of the north and north-east began to invade their territories on every side, and to erect on their ruins, a multitude of principalities, independent on each other, but united by the profession of a common religion, by a common regard for its interests, and by a common submission, in religious concerns, to the pope, as their common head. By degrees, Austria, France, Spain, and England, became the European powers of the first order. The union of the Imperial and Spanish crowns on the head of Charles the fifth, producedconfederacies against him. The French monarch was always at their head; and Europe thus became

divided into two new parties, the Austrian and the French.

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The reformation arrived: and then, according to Scheller*, "the interests of the European states, which, till that time, had been national, ceased to "be such; and the interests of religion formed a "bond of union, among subjects of different go"vernments, who, till this time, had been unknown "to each other. A sentiment more powerful in "the heart of man than even the love of his "country, rendered him capable of perceptions "and feelings which reached beyond its limits: "the French calvinist found himself more in con"tact with a calvinist in England, Germany, Holland, or Geneva, than with a catholic of his own



country." This effected a new political division of Europe France, siding with the separatists from the church of Rome, and introducing to the aid of their common cause the Ottoman power, became the real head of one party; Austria was the head of the other. But when, upon the abdication of Charles the fifth, his German were divided from his Spanish states, and the civil wars of France weakened her connections with the protestant

* Histoire de la Guerre de trente ans,-cited by M. de Bonald, in his interesting essay, "De l'Unité Religieuse en "Europe;"-inserted in the Ambigu of Peltier, No. cxxv.This journal contains several other essays of Bonald, on subjects of literature and history, which show great learning, an excellent taste, and profound observation.-See also “Les véritables Auteurs de la Révolution de France de 1789, 8vo. Neufchatel, 1797.

powers and the Porte, Philip the second of Spain and Elizabeth of England became the conspicuous characters. Philip, with the aid of Bavaria, was the centre of the catholic system; Elizabeth, with the United Provinces at her disposition, was at the head of the protestant. During this period, Germany, under the peaceable influence of Rudolph, took no part in the contest; but all the temporal, and, (which was of much greater consequence), all the spiritual power of Rome, co-operated with the Spaniard, and placed the pope in the van of the catholic array. Then, if Scheller's remarks be just, the protestants in every country subject to the Spanish sway, would be partisans of Elizabeth, and every catholic in the territories subject to her dominion or controul, would be favourable to the designs of Philip and the pope. Pursuing his reasoning, it would follow, that this would be particularly the case of the clergy of each division, on account of their nearer interests in the concerns of religion; and still more the case of the catholic clergy, on account of their intimate connection with the Roman see, and graduated dependence upon her.

Now if we examine the conduct of the foreign protestants and the English catholics by Scheller's observation, we shall find the result very favourable to the latter.-While England was at peace with France, Elizabeth supplied the protestant insurgents with men, ammunition, and money, concluded an offensive and defensive treaty with them, and was put by them into possession of Havre de

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