Springer Science & Business Media, 9 nov 2007 - 397 pagine
This book is, of course about complexity. The title of the book, as you may recognize was motivated (excuse me for using this very mild expression) by Daniel Dennett’s Consciousness Explained . Dennett’s intention was to explain consciousness as the emergent product of the interaction among c- stituents having physical and neural character. The goal of this book is to explain how various types of complexity emerge due to the interaction among constituents. There are many questions to be answered, how to understand, control, decompose, manage, predict the many-faced complexity. After tea- ing thissubjectforseveralyearsIfeelthatthe time hascome toputthe whole story together. The term “complex system” is a buzzword, but we certainly don’t have a single de?nition for it. There are several predominant features of compl- ity. Complex processes may show unpredictable behavior (which we still try to predict somehow), may lead to uncontrolled explosion (such in case of epilepsy, earthquake eruptions or stock market crashes). One of the char- teristic feature of simple systems is, that there is a single cause which implies a single e?ect. For large class of complex systems it is true that e?ects are fed back to modify causes. Biological cells belong to this class. Furthermore they are open to material, energetic and information ?ow by interaction with their environment, still they are organizationallyclosed units. Another aspect of complexity is the question how collective phenomena emerge by some se- organized mechanisms.
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13 Connecting the Dots
History of Complex Systems Research
212 Reductionism and Complexity in Molecular Biology Capsule History of Early Molecular Biology
22 Ancestors of present day complex system research
56 Artiﬁcial Intelligence Herbert Simon and the Bounded Rationality
from Herbert Simon to Brian Arthur
58 Minority Game
59 Summary and What Next?
Statistical Laws From Symmetric to Asymmetric
613 Liouville Process Wiener and Special Wiener Process OrnsteinUhlenbeck Process
62 Bimodal and Multimodal Distributions
Theory of Dissipative Structures Synergetics and Catastrophe Theory
From the Clockwork World View to Irreversibility and Back?
312 Linear Time Concepts
32 The Newtonian Clockwork Universe
322 Keplers Integral Laws
323 Newtons Differential Laws Hamilton Equations Conservative Oscillation Dissipation
33 Mechanics Versus Thermodynamics
332 Steam Engine Feedback control Irreversibility
34 The Birth of the Modern Theory of Dynamical Systems
A Few Words About the Modern Theory of Dynamical Systems
Then and Now
what Is Important and What Is Not?
363 The Necessity of Being Chaotic
Why and How?
37 Direction of Evolution
372 Is Something NeverDecreasing During Evolution?
The Dynamic World View in Action
411 Causal Versus Teleological Description
412 Causality Networks Emergent Novelty
A Prototype of Nonlinear Science
421 On the StructureDynamics Relationship for Chemical Reactions
422 Chemical Kinetics as a Metalanguage
423 Spatiotemporal Patterns in Chemistry and Biology
The Half Admitted Renaissance of Cybernetics and Systems Theory
432 Cells As SelfReferential Systems
433 The OldNew Systems Biology
Model Framework and Applications for Genetic Networks
Biological and Social
442 The Epidemic Propagation of Infections and Ideas
443 Modeling Social Epidemics
45 Evolutionary Dynamics
46 Dynamic Models of War and Love
462 Is Love Different from War?
472 Opinion Dynamics
482 Controlling Chaos in Economic Models
The Search for Laws Deductive Versus Inductive
From Newton to Russell and Whitehead
53 Karl Popper and the Problem of Induction
The Real Pioneer of Complex Systems Studies
63 Long Tail Distributions
632 Generation of Lognormal and Power Law Distributions
Simple and Complex Structures Between Order and Randomness
72 Structural Complexity
721 Structures and Graphs
722 Complexity of Graphs
723 Fractal Structures
An Elementary Mathematical Model
Between Order and Randomness
742 Networks in Cell Biology
743 Epidemics on Networks
744 Citation and Collaboration Networks in Science and Technology
Complexity of the Brain Structure Function and Dynamics
82 Windows on the Brain
A Brief Review
83 Approaches and Organizational Principles
832 Bottom Up and top Down
833 Organizational Principles
84 Single Cells
Deterministic and Stochastic Framework
85 Structure Dynamics Function
852 Neural Rhythms
Towards a Uniﬁed Theory of BrainMind and Computer
862 From Cognitive Science to Embodied Cognition Cognitive Science
863 The Brain as a Hermeneutic Device
864 From Neurons to Soul and Back
From Models to Decision Making
912 Artiﬁcial Life
913 Artiﬁcial Societies
914 AgentBased Computational Economics
Where We Are Now?
922 Evolutionary Game Theory
Earthquake Eruptions Epileptics Seizures and Stock Market Crashes
932 Phenomenology Earthquake Eruption
933 Statistical Analysis of Extreme Events
934 Towards Predicting Seizures
Analysis of Price Peaks
936 Dynamical Models of Extreme Events
How Many Cultures We Have?
Natural and Human Socioeconomic Systems
102 The Ingredients of Complex Systems
In Defense of Bounded Rationality
activity agents algorithm analysis analyzed assumption attractor basic behavior biological brain called catastrophe theory causal cells chaos chaotic characterized chemical chemical kinetics citations clock complex systems components concept connected cybernetics defined describe deterministic distribution dynamical systems edge effect emergence envy-free equilibrium evolution evolutionary evolutionary game theory explain frequency function game theory gene genetic graph Hebbian learning Herbert Simon implies increase initial integration interaction kinetic limit cycle linear mathematical measure mechanism membrane potential methods molecular molecules motion Neumann neural networks neurons nodes nonlinear organization oscillation parameter patent patterns phase phenomena physics place cell players population positive feedback potential power law predict principle problem properties random reactions result role Sect seizures self-organized self-organized criticality simple social spatial stability stochastic strategies structures studied suggested synaptic Systems Biology systems theory temporal theorem theta tion variables visual Wiener Wiener process
Pagina 2 - There once were two watchmakers, named Hora and Tempus, who manufactured very fine watches. Both of them were highly regarded, and the phones in their workshops rang frequently new customers were constantly calling them. However, Hora prospered, while Tempus became poorer and poorer and finally lost his shop. What was the reason? The watches the men made consisted of about 1,000 parts each. Tempus had so constructed his that if he had one partly assembled and had to put it down - to answer the phone,...
Pagina 2 - The better the customers liked his watches, the more they phoned him, the more difficult it became for him to find enough uninterrupted time to finish a watch. The watches that Hora made were no less complex than those of Tempus. But he had designed them so that he could put together subassemblies of about ten elements each.
Pagina 2 - The watches that Hora made were no less complex than those of Tempus. But he had designed them so that he could put together subassemblies of about ten elements each. Ten of these subassemblies again, could be put together into a larger subassembly; and a system of ten of the latter subassemblies constituted the whole watch. Hence, when Hora had to put down a partly assembled watch in order to answer the phone, he lost only a small part of his work, and he assembled his watches in only a fraction...