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ion to School Classics. The illustrated chapter on the Roman Forum will, it is believed, be a welcome innovation. A general knowledge of Roman topography and especially of the Forum and its surroundings is essential to the comprehension of many passages in the text. In this connection the editor takes the opportunity of expressing his thanks to Professor Gatteschi of Rome for permission to use his admirable reconstruction of the Forum. Professor Gatteschi has devoted many years to the study of Roman topography, and students and teachers alike may be interested to know that he is prepared to furnish on application a large variety of reconstructions of the most famous portions of the ancient city.
The orations are presented in their chronological order. But a further reason for placing the Manilian Law first is that its regular structure, largely narrative style, and general absence of difficulties make it peculiarly fit for an introduction to our author. The Catilinarian orations may, however, be read first if preferred, as the commentaries have been kept quite distinct. A feature new to text-books in Cicero are the foot-notes to the Manilian Law, which, in the form of glosses, definitions, and words of opposite meaning aim to give a clew to the meaning of unusual or difficult words in the text. In this way students are helped to rely on their own knowledge, and are taught to get the thought as far as possible from the Latin, before seeking assistance from the vocabulary. The words in the foot-notes are not to be understood as exact synonyms nor as interchangeable with the words in the text.
Another new feature are the selections from Sallust's Catiline, which, in the form of parallel foot-notes,
accompany the Catilinarian orations. After all admis sible criticisms have been made upon Sallust, the fact remains that, as a faithful and dramatic picture of Catiline's life and times, his narrative stands unsurpassed. The selections, therefore, make an admirable commentary upon the text, and, at the same time, furnish peculiarly appropriate material for sight reading.
Another means to larger vocabulary and strength in reading will be found in the groups of related words. These have been so arranged on the page that their etymological relations are obvious at a glance, a point which will greatly facilitate their mastery and classification.
At this stage of his Latin course, a student may very profitably begin to strengthen, enlarge, and refine his vocabulary by a knowledge of some of the more impor tant synonyms. Cicero's masterly diction is peculiarly well adapted to serve as an introduction to this line of study. Some pages have, therefore, been devoted to groups of synonyms and contrasted words found in these orations. Only the broader distinctions have been attempted; only such, in a word, as will be appreciated and understood by preparatory students.
It is conceded to be a sound pedagogical principle in classical instruction that young pupils should be given all the sidelights possible to create the proper mental environment, and make the ancient past real and animate. To this end, illustrations, maps, and plans have been used with an unsparing hand. Many of the illustrations are from private, unpublished photographs which the editor took on the ground. To serve the same purpose are the numerous reading references in the notes, to
such books as are most apt to be in the libraries of secondary schools.
Of the notes, little more need be said than that they have been prepared throughout to meet the wants and difficulties of young student, and to arouse and hold his interest. The usual Latin grammars are referred to, but when a syntactical principle has once been well established by explanation, or reference, or both, the typical case has been referred to in subsequent instances as a model, rather than the reference repeated. Syntax is best learned from a study of the text.
In the vocabulary, such matters of etymology have been excluded as are uncertain or beyond the range of preparatory students, but the simpler formations and derivations are given in full. All common idioms are included in the definitions. Matters of biography and geography are treated with relative fulness, to serve as a ready means of reference.
It remains my pleasant duty to express my thanks to those that have assisted me in the preparation of this book. To Professor E. M. Pease, the editor-in-chief of the series, I am greatly indebted for many excellent suggestions. Miss Helen B. Muir, Dr. B. O. Foster, and Mr. Sereno Clark, of the Michigan State Normal College faculty, deserve grateful mention for valuable assistance. in proof-reading, and Mrs. Alice Eddy Snowden, formerly connected with the same institution, for aid in preparing the vocabulary.
BENJAMIN L. D'OOGE,
BONN, GERMANY, June, 1901.
Michigan State Normal College.
Introduction to the Oration on the Pardon of Marcellus 335
GROUPS OF RELATED WORDS