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abounds. This expedient has been resorted to in various passages of the present volume, as page 112, where the clause having sustained considerable losses has been briefly rendered by the adverbial expression, mit großem Verluste.

(g) In one case the Present Participle may also be used in German, more particularly in elevated diction,-viz. when it denotes an action which is represented as taking place simultaneously with the action expressed by the predicate; e.g. Dies alles bei mir denkend schlief ich ein (Sch.), thinking on all these matters I fell asleep, i.e. whilst I thought of all these matters I fell asleep.' Cf. Extract 42, note b.

In common prose, however, we generally use a finite verb introduced by indem (and sometimes by ra), as in walking through the town, I observed, etc. indem ich durch die Stadt ging, etc., (Cf. above II. a).

III. The construction of the Accusative with the Infinitive, so frequently occurring in Latin, Greek, and English, is inadmissible in German, since the verb governs in such a construction two objects of a perfectly different grammatical character-if we may say so; a process quite adverse to the character of the German language, which requires all grammatical relations to be logically and distinctly pointed out. We must, therefore, generally change the accusative into the nominative, the infinitive

into a finite verb, and introduce the sentence by the conjunction baß. For instance: I wish you to write the letter immediately, ich wünsche, daß Sie den Brief sogleich schreiben.

The Infinitive may, however, be used in German with some verbs, as sehen, hören, finden, fühlen, haben, etc., and also with the intransitive verbs gehen, reiten, fahren, bleiben; but all these and similar verbs form with the infinitive a kind of compound verbal expression, expressing one idea only, as: I see him coming, ich sehe ihn kommen; we go for a walk, wir gehen spazieren. In these examples the verbs fommen sehen and spazieren gehen express one notion only. Cf. Extract 17.

The reason stated with reference to the inadmissibility of the Accusative with the Infinitive in German may, in some measure, also explain the circumstance that verbs of choosing, appointing, declaring, considering, etc. do not govern in German two accusatives, as is the case in Greek, Latin, and English; but put the suffering or direct object alone in the accusative, and the word expressing the office to which a person has been appointed, or that which a person or thing is declared to be, is preceded by the preposition zu with the dative (after the verbs of choosing, electing, and declaring), and by the accusative with the prepositions als or für (after verbs of considering and declaring): e.g. They

appointed him president of the society, fie ernannten ihn zum Präsidenten der Gesellschaft; I esteem it a favour, ich betrachte es als eine Gunst. Cf. page 36, note 4, and page 85, note 2.

IV. The rule with reference to words in Apposition requires in German the greatest attention.

A noun (or its substitute, viz. a personal pronoun) or adjective or ordinal number is said to stand in the relation of Apposition when it qualifies or explains another noun previously mentioned.

The Apposition agrees, for the sake of grammatical distinctness, with the noun qualified, in gender, number, and case. Thus, in the extract No. 17, page 3, we must render the sentence, The flax plant is composed of three distinct parts, the wood, the fibres, and the gum resin, &c., by der Flachs besteht aus drei verschiedenen Theilen, dem Holze, den Fasern und dem Harze, &c. The terms Holz, Fasern, and Harz stand here in apposition to Theilen, aud must therefore, like the latter expression, be used in the dative case. See page 85, note 9.

The rule that the Article must be repeated before nouns of different gender or number-which is merely owing to the requirements of grammatical distinctness-may here appropriately be appended to the rule concerning the Apposition. See page 42 note 9.

V. Grammatical distinctness requires in German —though not rigorously—that the place of the object be supplied in the principal clause by the pronoun es when the leading verb governs the accusative case, and the object consists of a whole clause or a supine; e.g. He had ventured to go in secret, &c. (see page 17, note 7), er hatte es gewagt sich heimlich aufzumachen, &c.

If, however, the verb or adjective in the principal clause require a preposition, the latter is added to the demonstrative pronoun da or dar; e.g. This castle is remarkable as containing, &c. (see page 97 note 2), dieses Schloß ist dadurch merkwürdig, daß, &c.

Words printed in italics in the text are not to be translated.

When two words are separated by a dash (—) in the Notes, the German rendering refers to the whole clause of which the first and last word are given.

When words are separated by dots (...), the German rendering in the Notes is the equivalent for these words only, and not for the intervening expressions.

In Part I. the rules and renderings referring to each Extract are given in a single Note.



1. TIME is an important element in the action of force.

2. The hearing of birds is most acute.

3. The dome of St. Paul's Cathedral is built of wood. 4. The silver fir was introduced into England in the seventeenth century.


1 Important in the sense of affecting considerably some result, wich tig; element denotes here an 'essential condition,' and is to be rendered by Umstand, or by the more scientific term Moment, n.; action signifying effect of power' is rendered by Wirkung and force denoting active power' by Kraft. -Use the word time with the definite article, which is frequently required in German with abstract nouns when the abstract idea is expressed in a general sense.


2 Hearing, (the sense of) Gehör; most, here äußerst; acute, with reference to the senses, scharf.- Use birds with the definite article, because common names denotingan aggregate whole or entire genus,' require in German the definite article. 3 Dome, denoting 'cupola,' (It. and Engl.) Ruppel; St. Paul's Church, die Paulskirche; cf. p. 59, n. 3; wood, (the substance) Holz.The prep. of referring to a material

of which a thing is made, is translated by aus or von; by the former more generally when a verb is used at the same time, and by the latter when the verb is understood.

4 Silver fir, Silbertanne; to introduce into, here bringen nach; century, Jahrhundert. (a) Adverbial expressions of time precede in German adverbial expressions of place. Construe therefore was in the seventeenth century into England, &c. (b) Use the verb bringen in the imperf. of the passive voice. This form is always required in German when the suffering of an action by the subject is to be expressed. In the preceding sentence the action is represented as completed; we must, therefore, use the auxiliary verb fein in order to express the 'state' of the subject; but in the present instance we represent the subject as suffering the action, and have therefore to employ the auxiliary verb werten.


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