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rude and simple. They still1 associate poetry with recitation and the banquet, and when Malcolm2 wrote printing was still unknown among the useful arts of the country. They are passionately fond of horses, much given to the chase and to the practice of horse-racing. Men of letters are esteemed, and their society valued, even as in the Odyssey the bard is among those whom men are accustomed to invite to dinner. On the occasion of a marriage 10 they celebrate prolonged feasts of three days for the poor, and from that up to thirty or forty days for the highest classes.1


Amidst 12 great depravity much of filial piety 13 and of maternal influence remains. 14 It is observed 15 that they do not usually allude to 16 women by name. There is 17 an approach to this abstinence in the Homeric poems, where names of men, ,18 and likewise of goddesses, in the vocative are frequent;19 but I am 20 not sure that we have any

1 The adverb still is here, as in many other cases, to be rendered by noch immer; to associate, verbinden. The German version of the above clause will read better by turning with by and,' and the subsequent and by 'with.'

2 The above refers to Sir John Malcolm, who published some highly valuable works on Persia in 1815 and 1829, which, by the by, have also been rendered into German.

3 Printing among, transl. gehörte die Buchdruckerkunst noch nicht zu den. 4 Are...fond of love.


5 Much given, transl. sind...sehr ergeben; horse-racing, Pferderennen. 6 A man of letters, ein Gelehrter; to value, here schäßen.

7 Even as, say fo wie. Odyssey, Ooyee, and Iliad, Iliade, are in German feminine, in accordance with their original gender in Greek. 8 Turn is among by 'belongs to.' 9 Turn men are by 'one is;' to be accustomed, here pflegen.

10 Turn a marriage by 'weddings.'

11 Turn the clause they-classes briefly by 'feasts are celebrated which last three days with (bei) the poor, and about (an) thirty to (bis) forty days with the highest classes.'

12 Amidst, here bei.

13 Filial piety, kindliche Pietät. 14 Translate remains by herrscht, i.e. reigns, and add the expletive noch, still.

15 Turn it is observed by 'one has observed.'

16 To allude to, here erwähnen. 17 There is may be rendered in the above clause by ist...vorhanden, approach to by Aehnlichkeit mit, and abstinence by Zurückhaltung. The equivalent usually given for abstinence, viz. Enthaltsamkeit, should only be used when it coincides more with temperance.'

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18 See page 65, note 16.

19 The idiomatic expression in German for are frequent would here be häufig vorkommen.

20 In German the clause will be made more emphatic by inserting the conjunction but here.


instances of a woman addressed by her proper name throughout the Iliad or Odyssey.1 But certainly one of the most curious2 notes of similarity is that, together with their high and refined politeness, they retain a liability when under great excitement to a sort of cannibal ferocity.* **

To appreciate fully, however, the resemblances of Greek and Persian, we must take the latter as he is found in the military tribes of the province of Pars or Fars. The members of these tribes are chiefly horsemen, all soldiers, and all brigands. But they abhor the name and character of thief; plunder is redeemed by violence in their eyes, and it is evidently accompanied with the practice 10 of a generous and delicate hospitality. Alexander the Great endeavoured to bring11 these tribes to settle, and to adopt agricultural habits; 12 but they have defied his efforts, and still remain like the old Helli of the hills, when they 13 hung over the Pelasgians 14 of the valleys.-W. E. GLADSTONE, Studies on Homer and the Homeric Age.

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Use the indefinite article. 9 To redeem, here beschönigen; violence, Gewaltthätigkeit.

10 Practice, Ausübung; delicate, zartfühlend.

11 To bring, here bewegen; to settle, sich niederlassen.

12 To-habits, Ackerbau zu treiben; to defy, here sich widerseßen. The adverb like, gleich, is to be placed after hills.

13 Turn they by 'these,' and render hung-over by bedrohten.

14 The Pelasgians (Pelasger) were, according to Herodotus, the earliest inhabitants of Greece. They are said to have been an agricultural people. After the Helli had spread over the country, an amalgamation of the two races took place.



On2 the night selected for the enterprise,3 that of the 27th September, the moon was a day old in its fourth1 quarter, and rose a little before twelve. It was low water5 at between four and five in the morning. The Grand Commander at the appointed hour of midnight crossed to Philippsland, and stood on the shore to watch the setting forth of the little army. He addressed a short harangue to them, in which he skilfully struck the chords of Spanish chivalry 10 and the national love of glory, and was answered 11 with loud and enthusiastic cheers. Don Osorio d'Ulloa then stripped 12 and plunged into the sea immediately after the guides. He was followed 13 by the Spaniards, after whom came the Germans, and then the Walloons. The two hundred sappers and miners 14

1 Night march, nächtliche Expedition. The march described in the above extract was undertaken by Requesenz, the successor of Alva as governor of the Netherlands, to get possession of the Island of Shonen, so as to have the way open to the sea, and thus effect a union with the expected Spanish fleet.

2 On=in; selected, bestimmt. See Int. p. xiv., I.

3 Insert here the expletive 'namely,' and repeat the preposition 'in.'

4 Turn was-. s-fourth by 'stood... one day in the last.'

5 It-water, transl. die Ebbe war am tiefsten.

6 Grand Commander, Oberkom


7 Turn hour of midnight by 'midnight's-hour; to cross to, über sezen nach.

8 To watch, here beaufsichtigen; setting forth, Aufbruch.


9 Harangue, Ansprache; to strike, here berühren.

10 Chivalry, here Ritterlichkeit; love of glory, Ruhmbegierde.

11 Translate was answered by tönte ihm entgegen, and put the expression cheers (Beifall) with its attributes in the nominative. The verb to answer governs the dative of the person and accusative of the thing, and could therefore, according to the rule stated in note b to Ext. 22, not be rendered here literally, even if the expression were suitable for the above clause.

12 To strip, here sich entkleiden; immediately, gleich.

13 The rule alluded to in the last note but one refers also to the verb folgen, which requires the dative. It must, therefore, be turned into the active voice, putting the noun Spaniards in the nominative case, and turning whom by 'these.'

14 Use for sappers and miners the corresponding foreign terms.

next;1 and Don Gabriel Peralta, with his Spanish company, brought up the rear.

It was a wild2 night. Incessant lightning alternately revealed and obscured the progress of the midnight march through the black waters, as the anxious5 Commander watched the expedition from the shore; but the soldiers were quickly swallowed up in the gloom. As they advanced cautiously, two by two, the daring adventurers found themselves soon nearly up to their necks in the waves, whilst so narrow was the submerged bank along which they were marching, that a misstep 10 to the right or left was fatal. Luckless individuals 11 repeatedly sank to rise no more.


Meantime, as the sickly 12 light of the waning moon came forth at intervals 13 through the stormy clouds, the soldiers could plainly 14 perceive the files of Zealand vessels through which they were to march, and which were anchored 15 as close to the flat as the water would allow. Some had recklessly stranded themselves,16 in their eagerness to interrupt the passage of the troops; and the artillery 17 played unceasingly from the larger vessels. * * *

At times they halted for breath,18 or to engage in fierce

1 Next, here zunächst; brought― rear, bildete...den Nachtrab.

2 Wild stormy. Use in German the noun lightning in the plural.

3 Render here to reveal by ent hüllen, to obscure by verbergen, and progress by Vorrücken. For midnight use here the attributive adjective mitternächtlich.

4 Translate black by bunfel, and turn waters by 'flood,' and as by 'whilst.'

5 Anxious, here besorgt.

6 Retain this identical expression, pronouncing it as a German word. From, say von...aus. 7 In the gloom by the dark


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bebedte, and turn along by 'upon.' 10 Misstep, Fehltritt; was fatal, transl. verderblich wurde.

11 Individuals = persons; repeatedly, here häufig; more = again. 12 Sickly, here fahl.

13 Turn came-intervals by 'from time to time broke,' and stormy clouds by 'storm-clouds.'

14 Plainly, deutlich; file, Reihe, Zealand, here feeländisch.

15 To be anchored, vor Anker liegen; flat, here Untiefe; would allow, transl. es gestattete.

16 Had recklessly stranded themselves, waren unbedachtsamer Weise gestrandet; interrupt = prevent; passage, Uebergang.

17 Artillery, here Geschüß. 18 They breath, hielten sie an um Athem zu schöpfen; to engage, here sich einlassen; fierce, higig.



skirmishes with their nearest assailants. Standing1 breasthigh in the waves, and surrounded at intervals 2 by total darkness, they were yet able to pour an occasional1 welldirected volley into the hostile ranks. The Zealanders, however, did not assail them with fire-arms 5 alone. They transfixed some with their fatal harpoons; they dragged others from the path with boat-hooks; they beat out? the brains of others with heavy flails. Many were the mortal duels thus fought in the darkness, and, as it were, in the bottom of the sea :10 many were the deeds of audacity 11 which no eye was to mark save those by whom they were achieved. Still, in spite of all impediments and losses, the Spaniards steadily advanced.12 If other arms proved less available,13 they were attacked by the fierce 14 taunts and invectives of their often invisible foes, who reviled 15 them as water-dogs, fetching and carrying 16 for a master who despised them; as mercenaries, who coined17 their blood for gold, and were employed 18 by tyrants for the basest uses. If, stung 19 by these mocking voices, they turned in the darkness to chastise their unseen 20 tormentors, they were certain 21 to be trampled upon by their

1 Turn standing by although they stood,' and supply the verb 'were' before surrounded.

2 At intervals, von Zeit zu Zeit. 3 See the note to Ext. 7.

4 Turn pour by 'send,' an occasional by the adverb 'occasionally,' and render well-directed volley by wohlgezielte Ladung.

5 Fire-arm, Feuergewehr.

6 To drag...from, herabreißen. 7 Translate to beat out in the above clause by zerschmettern, and use brains in the singular only.

8 Turn many by numerous,' and mortal by deadly.'

9 Thus, transl. die auf diese Weise. 10 In-sea, auf dem Meeresgrunde. 11 Turn of audacity by the attributive adjective audacious,' and was by 'ought;' to mark, here wahr nehmen; save = except.

12 To advance steadily, unaufhaltfam vorwärts rücken.

13 To prove available, sich als wirksam erweisen.


14 Fierce violent; taunts, Schimpfreden; invectives, Schmähungen. 15 To revile, here schelten.

16 The idiomatic German expression for to fetch and carry, in reference to a dog, is apportiren. See Int. p. xvi., b.

17 Turn here coined by 'sold.' 18 Were employed, here fich gebrauchen ließen; for, zu; uses, Dienste. 19 Translate here stung by aufgeftachelt, mocking voices by Spott reden, and to turn by sich umwenten. 20 Unseeen invisible.


21 The adjective certain is, in clauses like the above, generally rendered by unfehlbar, i.e. without fail, and sometimes by gewiß; the verb itself is then generally used in the passive voice, as here: they upon = they were certainly trampled upon (niedergetreten).

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