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Van Eyck of Bruges, towards the end of the fourteenth century. It has now become almost the only manner in which paintings of magnitude are executed.

32. The Urceola Elastica is to be found in abundance in the islands of the Indian Archipelago, and can, without being injured, yield by tapping from fifty to sixty pounds of caoutchouc in one season.

33. In our island the Latin appears never to have superseded the old Gaelic speech, and could not stand its ground against the German.

34. Sir Richard Cotton, one day at his tailor's, discovered that the man was holding in his hand, ready to cut up for measures, an original Magna Charta, with all its appendages of seals and signatures; and an original Magna Charta is preserved in the Cottonian Library exhibiting marks of dilapidation.

Goethe sanctions, however, the use of entdecken in similar instances by speaking of the Entdeckung der Kupferstiche. Bruges, Brügge; Hasbecome, say ist jest; manner, Weise; of magnitude, say: von Bedeutung; to execute, ausführen. (a) Render of painting, by zu malen, because similar verbal forms in-ing, preceded by of, instead of for, or without are rendered in German by the Supine. (b) For was and are see n. b to Ext. 4.

32 Retain the Latin term Urceola Elastica with the original feminine gender and use for is to be found the present of the passive voice; in abundance, in großer Menge; for in see Ext. 24; the Indian Archipelagus, der indische Archipel (usually abbreviated from Archipelagus); to be injured, beschätigt werden; yield by tapping, durch Einschnitte... liefern; caoutchouc, Federharz, or usually Kautschuk; for season see p. 99, n. 11. (a) The expression in abundunce is to be put after Archipelago, because adverbial expressions of manner are placed after all other adverbial expressions. (b) Construe the remaining clauses: 'can in

one season, without being injured, fifty to sixty pounds of caoutchouc yield by tapping.' (c) When to between two cardinal numerals denotes an amount approximately, it is rendered by bis. (d) Use pounds in the singular, because masculine or neuter nouns, being preceded by a numeral and employed as terms of weight, measure, or number remain unchanged.

33 The Latin, das Lateinische; for the position of appears, cf., n. a to Ext. 12; to supersede, verdrängen; the old Gaelic speech, das Altgälische; supply es before could; to stand its ground, fich behaupten; the German, das Deutsche.

34 One day, eines Tages; at his tailor's, bei seinem Schneider; ready, im Begriff; to-measures, als Maß zu zerschneiden; an-Charta, say ein Original der Magna Charta; appen dages, 3ubehör, (sing.); seal, Sicgel; signature, Unterschrift; to preserve, aufbewahren; Cottonian, Cottonischen; to exhibit, here an sich tragen; marks of dilapidation, Spuren der Verstümmelung. (a) Construe 'when Sir Robert Cotton was one day at his tailor's, he discovered, &c.,' and

35. Practice must settle the habit of doing without reflecting on the rule.

36. During the eruption from the crater of the Tombora mountain, in Sumbawa, the darkness occasioned by the ashes in the day-time was so profound, that nothing equal to it was ever witnessed in the darkest night of Java.

37. A piece of caoutchouc or india-rubber is very elastic, but not perfectly so, for it becomes permanently elongated by stretching. Glass, on the contrary, is perfectly elastic, for it will retain no permanent bend; when drawn into a fine thread, it may be twisted round upon its axis many times without breaking, and when set free always returns to the point from which it set out. 38. Dr. T. Fuller had such a wonderful memory that

place after signatures the words from was to measures. (b) Turn his hand by the hand' in accordance with the rule that the definite article is usually employed in German, (as is the case in Greek and French) instead of the possessive pronoun when the context clearly shows who the possessing, object is. (c) Cf. for is preserved, Ext. 4, n. a, and for exhibiting, Int. p. xvi., b.

35 Practice, Uebung; to settle, here verleihen; habit, synonymous with 'aptitude,' Fertigkeit; to do, here vollbringen; to reflect on, nachdenken über; rule (the precept or maxim), Regel. (a) Abstract nouns denoting actions require in German the definite article. (b) Cf. for of doing, without reflecting Ext. 31, n.a. 36 Eruption, Ausbruch; darkness, Finsterniß; to occasion, verursachen; by, burch; in the day-time, am Tage; profound, tief; that witnessed, wie man nie was Aehnliches...wahrgenom men; dark, dunkel; of, here auf. (a) The above sentence does not begin with the subject, see Ext. 12, n. a. (b) Turn occasioned by the ashes, (which words qualify the term darkness) by the by the ashes occasioned,' and see Int. p. xiv., I.

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(c) Render ashes in accordance with the rule that names of material are, commonly, not used in the plural. (d) The above Extract refers to the eruption of the volcano of Tombora in 1815, when the ashes were wafted from the isle of Sumbawa to that of Java.

37 India-rubber, Gummi Elafticum; perfectly, vollkommen; for, here denn; permanently, bleibend; by stretching, turch Ausziehen; on the contrary, here hingegen; to retain, beibehalten; bend, Biegung; when drawn into, wenn man es zu...ausdehnt; fine, here, dünn; thread, Faden; be-upon, um...gedreht werden; many times, vielmals; to break, zerbrechen, when set free, wenn es losgelassen wird; returns, say schnellt es...zurück; point, Punkt; set out, aus. ging. (a) For glass, cf. Ext. 5, n. a. (b) Turn it will retain by 'it retains.' (c) For when see p. 41, n. 9. (d) When may is a synonym of to be able, it is rendered by können.

38 Such a wonderful, ein so außer ordentliches; render could by im Stande war; unconnected, unzusam menhängend; turn after-them by 'after he had heard them twice; to recite, here hersagen; the signs,

he could repeat five hundred unconnected words after twice hearing them, and recite the whole of the signs in the principal thoroughfares of London after once passing through and back again.

39. It was the just boast of Schiller that in his country no Augustus, no Lorenzo, had watched over the infancy of poetry. The rich and energetic language of Luther, driven by the Latin from the schools of pedants, and by the French from the palaces of kings, had taken refuge among the people.*

40. The Philippine Islands were discovered by Magellan in the first voyage that was made round the world. They were first called the Archipelago of St. Lazarus: this was in the year 1520. In the year 1565 a Spanish

sämmtliche Schilder; principal thoroughfares, Hauptstraßen; after again, nachdem er durch dieselben hinund zurückgegangen war. If the activity expressed by a verb is represented as something which can or should be done, we use in German the supine. It is, therefore, required after im Stande sein, and should be used here with the verb repeat and recite. Dr. T. Fuller, the historian, lived from the year 1608 to 1661.

39 It-Schiller, Schiller war mit Recht stolz darauf; _to_watch over, bewachen; poetry, Poesie; energetic, kraftvoll; driven, verbrängt; by, durch; pedant, Pedant; the French, das Französische; taken refuge, ihre Zuflucht genommen; among, here zu; people, Volf. When the word country refers to a man's land of nativity, we generally use in German the expressive term Baterland. The same is done in almost all Teutonic languages. Thus the Swedes speak of their Fädernesland, the Danes of

their Faedreland, &c,; Greek and Latin scholars will find analogous terms in Tarpis, patria, from which the Romance expressions patria, patrie, &c., currently used in Italy and France, are derived.

40 The Philippine Islands, die Philippinen; in, here auf; round, used as a preposition, um; colony, Colonie; to found, grünten; there, daselbst; command, Anführung;_to name, here benennen. (a) For were discovered, were...called, was founded and were named, cf. Ext. 4, note b. (b) Use the genitive of the def. article before Legaspi, because with foreign proper names, even if not ending in a sibilant, the case is sometimes pointed out by means of the def. article. (c) The prep. of is generally rendered by von, when the name of a place, but more especially of a country, when the noun by which it is governed follows, as here in the present instance, Philip II. of Spain.

*The above extract, from Macaulay's Essays on Frederick the Great, refers to Schiller's poem, "Die deutche Muse," the first verses of which run

'Kein Augustisch Alter blühte,

Keines Medicäers Güte

Lächelte der deutschen Kunst,' &c.

colony was founded there under the command of Legaspi, aud the islands were named after Philip II. of Spain.

41. A bitter plant with wavy sea-green leaves has been taken from the sea-side, where it grew like wild charlock; it was transplanted into the garden, lost its saltness, and has become metamorphosed into two distinct vegetables, as unlike to each other as is each to the parent-plant-into the red-cabbage and the cauliflower.

42. Camoens, the celebrated poet of the Lusiad, was wrecked at the mouth of the river Mekon, and with difficulty reached the shore, swimming with one hand and bearing his poem above the water in the other, the only treasure which he had saved, and which was dearer to him than his life.

43. Sir Humphry Davy relates, that a friend of his, having discovered under the burning sand of Ceylon the eggs of an alligator, had the curiosity to break one of

41 Wavy, (in botany) wellenförmig; sea-green seegrün; sea-side, Meeres füste; like, wie; charlock is the general English name for Adersens or Ackerrettig; to be transplanted, verpflanzt werden; saltness, Salzge schmack; for distinct see Ext. 17; vegetables, here Gemüsearten; supply 'which (are)' before as unlike (so unähnlich); as is each, say: wie jede derselben. (a) Use for has been taken the passive imperf. of nehmen. (b) Render has become metamorphosed by the imperf. of sich verwandeln; the reflective form being, in German, preferred to the passive voice, when the agent from whom the activity proceeds is not mentioned. The plant alluded to in the above extract is the wild cabbage or Brassica oleracea.

42 Celebrated, berühmt; Lusiad, Lufiade, f.; to be wrecked, Schiffbruch Leiden; mouth, (of a river) Mündung; Mekon is a river in Cochin China; with difficulty, mit Mühe; to reach, erreichen; shore, Ulfer; with one, say: mit der einen; to bear, here emporhalten; poem, Gedicht; treasure,

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Schaß; to save i.e., 'to rescue,' retten; dear, theuer. (a) Place reached before with difficulty. (b) For swimming and bearing, cf. Int. p. xvii., g, and construe swimming. other: with the one hand swimming and in the other his poem,' after which clauses place the words above the water and bearing. (b) Camoens, the greatest Portuguese poet, was born in 1524. His great epic poem, Os Lusíadas, (i.e. 'the Lusitanians,' as the Portuguese are called) describes Vasco di Gama's expedition to India, and the brilliant exploits of his countrymen.

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48 To relate, erzählen; turn thatunder, by that one of his friends who had discovered in ;' burning, here glühend; retain the word alli gator; turn had-them by 'from (aus) curiosity one of the same broke (zerbrach);' came forth, heraus. kroch; perfect, say: vollständig...ausge bildet; passions, here Triebe; hatched, ausgehect; influence, Einwirkung ; sun beams, Sonnenstrahlen; it made towards the, eilte er dem...zu; proper, eigentlich; element, Element; when

them, when a young alligator came forth perfect in its motions and its passions; for although hatched in the sand under the influence of the sunbeams, it made towards the water, its proper element: when hindered, it assumed a threatening aspect, and bit the stick presented to it.

44. Several of the British forests which are now marshes, were cut down at different periods by order of the English Parliament, because they harboured wolves and outlaws. Thus the Welsh woods were cut and burnt in the reign of Edward I., as were many of those in Ireland by Henry II., to prevent the natives from harbouring in them and harassing his troops.

45. A grain of musk is said to be divisible into three hundred and twenty quadrillions of parts, each of which is capable of affecting the olfactory nerve.

46. Our knowledge of the origin and affinities of European languages has been, within the last forty or fifty years, greatly increased and improved by the labours of German scholars.

hindered, aufgehalten; to assume, annehmen; aspect, Aussehen; supply 'in' after bit and render presented to it, by den man ihm vorhielt.

44 Several, mehrere; to cut (down) a forest or wood, einen Wald umhauen; period, here 3eit; by order, auf Befehl; to harbour used transitively, denoting 'to give shelter,' is rendered by Zuflucht gewähren; when employed intransitively, denoting to seek shelter' it is translated by Zuflucht fuchen; Welsh, wallisisch; Welsh woods may also be turned by 'woods in Wales;' to burn, nie derbrennen; turn as those by 'as also many;' to prevent, verhindern; natives, Eingeborne; to harass, here belästigen. (a) For in the reign see Ext. 12. (b) The verb verhindern would here require the prep. an; cf. p. 97, n. 2.

45 Grain (weight), Gran; each of which, von denen jeber; to be capable, können; to affect, here afficiren, from

the Latin afficere; olfactory nerve, Geruchsnery (e). (a) When the phrases it is said, they say, are used to report the assertion of others—like the Latin dicitur-they must be rendered by the requisite tense of sollen. (b) Of affecting ought according to the rules given before to be rendered by the Supine; the infinitive without zu is, however, always required in German after the auxiliary verbs of mood können, mögen, dürfen, wollen, sollen, müssen, and also after a few other verbs, as sehen, hören, finden, &c. Cp. the English usage of omitting the prep. before infinitives after those verbs. 46 Knowledge, Kenntniß; Origin, Ursprung; affinities, Verwandtschaft, sing.; transl. here within by in, or by bis, greatly by bedeutend, increased by bereichert and improved by erweitert; labour, Arbeit; scholar. Gelehrte. When by is a synonynı of through,' denoting the means


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