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comrades, and to be pushed from their narrow pathway into the depth of1 sea. Thus many perished.

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The night wore on,2 and the adventurers still fought it out manfully, but very slowly; the main body of Spaniards, Germans, and Walloons soon after daylight5 reaching the opposite shore, having sustained considerable losses, but in perfect order. The pioneers were not so fortunate. The tide rose over them before they could effect their passage, and swept nearly every one away.9MOTLEY, The Rise of the Dutch Republic.

VII.

THE STUDY OF NATURE.

Happy truly 10 is the naturalist. He has no time for melancholy dreams. The earth becomes to him transparent everywhere he sees 1l significancies, harmonies, laws, trains of cause and effect endlessly interlinked, 12 which draw him out of the narrow sphere of self-interest and self-pleasing 13 into a pure and wholesome region 14 of solemn joy and wonder. * * *

1 Turn depth of by the adjective 'deep.'

2 To wear on, in the above sense, dahinschleichen.

3 Fought-manfully, rückten tapfer fechtend...vorwärts.

4 Main body, Hauptmacht. 5 Daylight, here Tagesanbruch; to reach, here erreichen. Turn reaching by 'reached.'

6 The clause having losses may be very briefly rendered in German by means of the adverbial expression mit großem Verluste.

We generally use also in German the foreign expression Pionnier: the genuine Teutonic term which expressively denotes the meaning is Schanzgräber, i.e. trench-digger.

8 Rose over them, stieg über sie hin weg.

9 To sweep...away, here davonschwemmen; every one = all.

10 Truly, here wahrhaft, to be placed before happy. He has, say ihm bleibt; for, zu.

11 Turn sees by 'discovers,' and render significancies by Sinn.

12 Trains of... endlessly interlinked, in endloser Reihenfolge verkertet, which clause must follow after canse and effect; self-interest, Selbstucht.

13 Self-pleasing, Selbstgefälligkeit. 14 Retain the same expression in German, pronouncing it as a German word. Supply before of the word voll, and use the following nouns in the plural.

Happy, especially,1 the sportsman who is also a naturalist; for as he roves in pursuit of his game over hills or up the beds of streams, where no one but a sportsman ever thinks of going, he will be certain to see things noteworthy, which the mere naturalist would never find, simply because he could never guess that they were there to be found. I do not speak merely of the rare birds which may be shot, the curious facts 10 as to the habits of fish which may be observed, great as 11 these pleasures are; I speak of the scenery, 12 the weather, the geological formation13 of the country, its vegetation,13 and the living habits 14 of its denizens. A sportsman out in all weathers, 15 and often dependent for success on his knowledge 16 "what the sky is going17 to do," has opportunities for becoming a meteorologist which no one beside, 18 but a sailor, possesses; and one 19 has often longed for a scientific 20 gamekeeper or huntsman, who by discovering a21 law for the mysterious and seemingly capricious phenomena 22 of "scent"

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1 Especially, here vor Allem. 2 See page 43, note 11.

3 In pursuit, beim Verfolgen; his the; up-streams, stromaufwärts. 4 Where, here wohin, to be followed by of going.

5 Turn no-thinks by 'it only to a hunter occurs' (einfällt).

6 Turn he see by 'he will certainly...see.' Fore the place of noteworthy cf. Int. p. xiv., I.

7 Could never guess, durchaus nicht ahnen kann.

8 See page 45, note 20. 9 Turn may be shot by 'he can shoot.'

10 See page 48, note 8, and use the corresponding foreign expression. As to, betreffent, to be placed after fish, which is to be used in the plural.

11 Great as, so groß... auch; are = may be.

12 Employ the corresponding foreign expression.

13 The same terms, pronounced as Gern an words, may be retained in the translation.

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might perhaps throw light on a hundred dark passages 1 of hygrometry.

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The fisherman, too,2—what an inexhaustible treasury of wonders lies at his feet in the subaqueous world3 of the commonest mountain burn!4 All the laws which mould a world are busy, if he but knew it, fattening his trout for him, and making them rise to the fly, by strange electric influences, at one hour rather than at another.7

Many a good geognostic lesson, too, both as to the nature of a country's rocks and as to the laws by which strata 10 are deposited, may an observing man 11 learn as 12 he wades up the bed of a trout-stream; 13 not to mention 14 the strange forms and habits of the tribes of water-insects.CHARLES KINGSLEY, Glaucus, or the Wonders of the Shore.

1 Translate passages by Vorfälle, i.e. incidents. Hygrometry may also be used in German after changing the final y into ie. This rule holds good with reference to other Greek nouns ending in y.

2 Turn too by and also,' beginning the sentence with these words. 3 Subaqueous world may here be rendered by the expressive compound term Wasserwelt.

4 The Scottish word burn is to be turned by 'stream,' and joined to the word mountain.

5 Mould, here bilden.

6 To fatten, here groß füttern. Cf. Int. p. xv., II., a. The personal relation expressed in English by his and for him may in German be simply rendered by the dative of the personal pronoun er, to be placed before trout, and the possessive pronoun his turned by the article the.'

7 Arrange the sentence and-another in this manner: 'and through unknown electric influences are the cause (bewirken) that they rather (cher) at one hour than at another to the (zur) fly rise' (emporschwimmen).

8 Good useful; lesson, here Lehre. Turn too by 'also,' and place it at the beginning of the sentence.

Turn of-rocks by 'of the rocks of a country.'

10 Retain the same expression in German. Deposited, gebildet.

11 Turn an observing man by 'a good observer;' to learn, here schöpfen.

12 See page 43, note 11, and turn up by 'through.'

13 We say in German 'troutbrook,' using trout in the plural.

14 Turn not to mention by 'without speaking of,' and tribes by 'families.'

VIII.

A FUNERAL DANCE.1

Drums were beating,2 horns blowing, and people were seen all running in one direction; the cause was a funeral dance and I joined 5 the crowd, and soon found myself in the midst of the entertainment.6 The dancers were most grotesquely got up. About a dozen huge ostrich feathers adorned their helmets; either leopard or the black and white monkey skins were suspended from their shoulders; and a leather tied round the waist covered a large iron bell which was strapped9 upon the loins of each dancer: this they rang to the time10 of the dance. A large crowd got up in this stylell created an indescribable hubbub, heightened 12 by the blowing of horns and the beating 13 of seven nogaras of various notes. Every dancer wore an antelope's horn suspended14 round the neck, which he blew occasionally in the height of his excitement. These instruments produced a sound partaking 15 of the braying of a donkey and the screech of an owl.

Crowds 16 of men rushed round and round17 in a sort of

1 A funeral dance, ein Tanz zur Leichenfeier.

2 To beat (a drum), rühren. Use the imperfect of the passive voice.

3 Translate blowing by the imperfect of the intransitive verb erklingen, i.e. resounded.

4 Turn people-running by 'one saw all (alles) people...run.'

5 To join, here sich anschließen. 6 Entertainment, here Festlichkeit. 7 Grotesquely, grotesk; got up, here ausstaffirt.

8 Skin, here Fell, forms a compound term with the plural of the nouns leopard and monkey; see page 93, note 16. To be suspended, hängen; from, von...herab.

Strapped, mit einem Riemen ...befestigt; upon, here an. 10 They

time, schellten sie im

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during the

Tacte; of the dance
dancing (Tanzens).
11 In this style, auf diese Weise;
to create, here hervorbringen.

12 Heightened, say der noch... erhöht wurde.

13 The beating, das Schlagen. Retain the expression nogaras -a kind of drum-also in German. Notes, transl. Klang.

14 Turn wore...suspended by 'had ...hanging,' and form a compound term of the plural of antelope and the singular of horn. In-excitement in the highest excitement. 15 Partaking which had something.

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16 Turn crowds by a crowd,' and see for men page 65, note 16. 17 Rushed-round, wirbelten im Kreise herum.

galop infernal,1 brandishing their lances and iron-headed maces, and keeping tolerably in line five or six deep,2 following the leader who headed them, dancing backwards. The women kept outside the line, dancing a slow, stupid step, and screaming a wild and most inharmonious chant, while a long string of young girls and small children, their heads and necks rubbed with red ochre and grease, and prettily ornamented with strings of beads around their loins, kept a very good line,10 beating the timell with their feet, and jingling 12 the numerous iron rings which adorned their ankles, to keep time 13 with the drums. One woman attended upon 14 the men, running through the crowd with a gourd full of wood ashes,15 handfuls of which 16 she showered 17 over their heads, powdering them like millers: the object 1s of the operation I could not understand.-SIR S. W. BAKER, The Albert N'yanza.

1 Galop infernal, Höllengallop; iron-headed (lit. mit eisernem Knopfe), transl. here eisenbeschlagen.

2 Keeping-deep, in Reihen von fünf bis sechs Mann hoch ziemlich Schritt hielten. For the construction of following. Compare Int. page xv., II., a.

3 Render headed by anführte placing it after dancing backwards. Cf. Int. page xvii., II., g.

To keep, here sich halten. 5 Dancing -step, indem sie in langsamer, alberner Weise tanzten; screaming a....chant, transl. einen ...Gesang ausstießen.

6 String, here Reihe.

7 Use both heads and necks in the singular. Rubbed, eingerieben. 8 Prettily, here zierlich; strings of beads, Perlenschnüre.

9 Turn around their loins simply

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