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Those of us (and they are many1) who owe a great debt of gratitude to the German spirit and to German literature, do not like to be told of any powers being lacking there; 3 we are like the young ladies who think the hero of their novel is only half a hero unless he has all perfections united in him.5 But Nature does not work, either in heroes or races, according to the young ladies' notion." We all are what we are, the hero and the great nation are what they are, by our limitations as well as by our powers, by lacking something as well10 as by possessing something.

It is not always gain 11 to possess this or that gift, or loss to lack this or that gift. Our great, our only first-rate body of contemporary poetry 12 is the German; the grand business 13 of modern 14 poetry, a moral interpretation 15 from an independent point of view of man and the world, it is only German poetry, Goethe's poetry, that has, since the

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of this clause will give the student a clue how to translate the following one.

11 Supply the indefinite article before gain and loss.

12 Turn Our-poetry by 'our only (einzig) great contemporary poetic school of first rank' (Rang). The expression contemporary is to be rendered here by zeitgenössisch, an adjective formed by modern German writers from the noun Zeitgenoffe, in analogy of eidgenössisch, from Eidgenosse.

13 Render business by Aufgabe. 14 Retain the same expression, and turn a by 'namely, the.'

15 Interpretation, Interpretation. Insert here the words of man and the world, and turn it has by 'has only in German poetry, in Goethe's poetry.'

Greeks, made much way with. Campbell's power of 2 style, and the natural magic of Keats and Wordsworth, and Byron's Titanic personality, may be wanting to his poetry; but see1 what it has accomplished without them! How much more than Campbell with his power of style, and Keats and Wordsworth with their natural magic, and Byron with his Titanic personality! Why, for the immense, serious task it had to perform, the steadiness of German poetry, its going near the ground, its patient fidelity to nature, its using great plainness of speech, poetical drawbacks in one point of view, were safeguards and helps in another.-MATTHEW ARNOLD, Study of Celtic Literature.




At daybreak on the day appointed, when all the ships were ready in Peiræus for departure, the military force was marched down in a body 1o from the city and embarked. They were accompanied by nearly the whole population,

1 Made schritte gemacht.

with, bedeutende Fort

2 Turn power of by 'vigorous.' 3 Wanting, here abgehen or fehlen. 4 Translate here see by bedenkt, i.e. 'consider,' and supply nicht Alles after it.

5 How is in the above phrase generally rendered by um wie.

6 The whole of the following sentence, from why to another, must be arranged in a completely different manner, in order to obtain an idiomatic version, viz.: 'Indeed the steadiness (Solicität) of the German poetry, its going near the ground (ihr niedriger lug), its patient fidelity to nature, the great simplicity of its language, however much all these (wie sehr dies Alles), considered


from one point of view, are drawbacks (Mängel), formed (so bildeten fie doch), considered from another point of view, safeguards and helps (Schuß und Beförderungsmittel) for the fulfilment of its immense, serious task.'

7 The above extract refers to the departure of an Athenian fleet, 416 B. C., for Sicily, to assist the town of Segesta against the town of Selinus. The commanders were Alcibiades Nicias and Lamachus.

8 The past participle appointed qualifies here the noun day. For when see page 41, note 9.

9 The proper name Piräus is used in German with the definite article.

10 Turn the body by the whole


metics1 and foreigners as well as citizens; so that the appearance was that of a collective emigration, like the flight to Salamis sixty-five years before. While the crowd of foreigners brought thither by curiosity3 were amazed by the grandeur of the spectacle, the citizens accompanying were moved by deeper and more stirring anxieties.5 Their sons, brothers, relatives, and friends were just starting on the longest and largest enterprise which Athens had ever? undertaken; against an island extensive as well as powerful, known to none of them accurately, and into a sea of undefined possibilities; glory and profit on the one side, but hazards 10 of unassignable magnitude on the other. At this final parting ideas of doubt and danger became far more painfully present 11 than they had been in any of the preliminary discussions; and in spite of all the reassuring effect of the unrivalled armament before them,12 the relatives now separating at the water's edge13 could not banish the dark presentiment that they were bidding each other farewell for the last time.14

The moment immediately succeeding this farewell— when all the soldiers were already on board, and the keleustês 15 was on the point of beginning his chant to put

military force (Kriegsmacht) marched down.'

1 Supply the preposition von before metics, which term being derived from the Greek μέτοικος, is rendered in German by Metöken. The metics were in Athens aliens who were allowed to settle in the city on payment of a tax.

2 The that, es das Aussehen... hatte; collective emigration, Gefammtauswanderung; before is to be placed after Salamis.

3 Turn brought — curiosity by 'whom curiosity had tempted hither' (angelockt); amazed, in Erstaunen gesezt.

The were, waren die sie beglei tenden Bürger.

5 More stirring anxieties, aufre genderen Besorgnissen.

6 Were-on, waren im Begriff sich auf...zu begeben. Large may here be

rendered by großartig, and enterprise by Expedition.

7 Ever, here je.

8 Accurately, genau.

9 Render here sea by Meer, and not by See; the latter expression being rarely used figuratively.

10 Turn hazards by dangers,' and render of unassignable by von unberechenbarer.

11 Render ideas-present by traten ihnen die Gedanken an die Ungewißheit und die Gefahren viel schmerzlicher vor die Seele, and preliminary discussions by Vorberathungen.

12 Turn of them by 'which the present incomparable armament (Kriegsflotte) made.'

13 Turn water's edge, by 'shore.' 14 Bidding-time, sich ein leztes Lebewohl zuriefen.

15 Retain the above Greek expression also in German. The office


the rowers in motion-was peculiarly solemn and touching. Silence having been enjoined and obtained by sound of trumpet,1 both the crews in every ship and the spectators on shore followed the voice of the herald in praying to the gods for success 2 and in singing3 the pan. On every deck were seen bowls of wine prepared, out of which the officers and the epibatæ made libations with goblets of silver and gold.

At length the final signal was given, and the whole fleet quitted Peiræus in single file, displaying the exuberance of their yet untried force by a race of speeds as far as Ægina. Never in Grecian history was an invocation more unanimous, emphatic, and imposing addressed to the gods; never was the refusing nod 10 of Zeus more stern 11 or peremptory.-GEORGE GROTE, History of Greece.

of the keleustês was 'to give by his chaunt the time in which the rowers were to row.'

1 Turn Silence-trumpet by 'after through a sound of trumpet (Trom petenstoß) quiet had been enjoined (geboten) and restored.'

2 In praying...for success, im Gebet um Erfolg.

3 In singing should be rendered, in analogy with in praying, by the expression Gesang; and the term paan (Gr. Taιáv)—a name given to hymns chanted to Apollo before battles, &c.-retained in German.

4 Turn were seen by 'one saw, or rather freely by 'stood;' bowls of, Gefäße mit; render prepared by in Bereitschaft.

5 Retain the term epibata also in German. The epibata corresponded to the English marines, and the German Seefoldaten. T. make libations, Trankopfer darbringen.

6 Turn here final by 'last.' 7 Displaying, indem sie kundgaben; untried, unerprobt.

8 By-speed, in einem Wettrennen; as far as = until.

Supply the words 'in the course of the,' and turn invocation by 'prayer,' placing it after imposing (ergreifend).

10 Refusing nod, versagende Kopfschütteln.

11 Render stern by ftreng, and peremptory by the foreign form of this term.




Our eyes were turned2 in a moment on our own cavalry. We saw Brigadier-General Scarlett ride along in front of his massive squadrons.3 The Russians-evidently corps d'élite, their light blue jackets embroidered with silver lace were advancing on their left, at an easy gallop, towards the brow of the hill. A forest of 7 lances glistened in their rear, and several squadrons of grey-coated 8 dragoons moved up quickly to support them as they reached the summit. The instant they came in sight 10 the trumpets of our cavalry gave out a warning blast,11 which told us all that in another moment we should see the shock of battle 12 beneath our very eyes.

1 Charge, here Cavallerieangriff; at, bei. The above extract describes a well-known, brilliant episode which occurred during the Crimean war near Balaklava, a small town seven miles from Sebastopol.

2 To turn, here richten; turn in a by 'in the next;' BrigadierGeneral, Brigade-General.

3 Arrange the clause ride-squadrons in the following manner, 'the front of his massive (dichten) squadrons along (entlang) ride."

4 Employ the expression corps d'élite or Elitencorps with the indefinite article. The expressive literal equivalent, auserlesene or ausgewählte Truppen, is also frequently used.

5 Turn their-lace by 'in light blue with silver lace embroidered jackets.' When lace is synonymous with 'string' or 'cord,' it is rendered by Schnüre.

6 On, here u; at an, im; brow (of a hill), Gipfel.

7 Do not form here a compound expression, but render of by the corresponding preposition, though

the compound term Lanzenwald occurs in poetical diction.

8 The literal German equivalent of grey-coated is graurödig or graugerodt, but these expressions are hardly admissible in serious style. Turn, therefore, grey-coated by 'with grey coats,' placing this expression after dragoons, or say simply 'grey dragoons.'

9 To move up, heranrücken. 10 Turn The-sight by 'as soon as they became visible.'

11 The clause gave-blast may be rendered by stießen einen Warneton aus, and told turned by 'announced.' But the term Ton seems hardly expressive enough for the word blast, and we could obtain a vigorous and idiomatic rendering by turning the whole of the above clause by announced to us a warning trumpet-blast (Trompetenstoß) of our cavalry that we should see in the next moment,' &c.

12 The expression the shock of battle may here be briefly rendered by den Zusammenstoß. Beneath before.


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