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Lord Raglan, all his1 staff and escort, and groups of officers, the Zouaves,2 French generals and officers, and bodies of 3 French infantry on the height, were spectators of the scene, as though they were looking on the stage1 from the boxes of a theatre. Nearly every one dismounted and sat down, and not a word was said.5 The Russians advanced from the hill at a slow canter, which they changed to a trot, and at last nearly halted. Their first line was at least double the length of ours; it was three times as deep. Behind them was a similar line, equally strong and compact. They evidently despised their insignificant-looking enemy, but their time was come.9 trumpets again rang out 10 through the valley, and the Greys and Enniskilleners went right at 12 the centre of the Russian cavalry. The space between them was only a few hundred yards; 13 it was scarce enough to let the horses "14 gather way, nor had the men quite space sufficient for the full play 15 of their sword arms. The Russian line brings forward each wing 16 as our cavalry advance, and threatens to annihilate them as they pass on. Turning 17 a little to their left, so as 18 to meet the Russian right, the


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12 Render went right at by rückten gerade auf... los.

13 An English yard is more than a German Elle, but it will suffice here to render the word yards by Schritt, turning a few by 'several.' 14 Gather way, einen Anlauf zu nehmen.

15 Transl. here play by Gebrauch. For sword arm we say in German 'right arm.'

16 Turn The-wing by 'the two wings of the Russian line march forward' (rücken vor), and render the expression advance by avanciren. For the word as, occurring above twice, see page 43, note 11. Pass on, sich vorwärts bewegen.

17 The expression the Greys, occurring next page, forms here the subject of the sentence, which must be introduced by the conjunction indem: see Int. p. xv., II., a.

18 So as um Turn the expres

Greys rush on1 with a cheer that thrills to every heart: the wild shout of the Enniskilleners rises2 through the air at the same instant. 3 As lightning flashes through a cloud, the Greys and Enniskilleners pierced through the dark masses of Russians. The shock was but for a moment. There was a clash of steel and a light play of swordblades in the air,5 and then the Greys and the redcoats disappear in the midst of the shaken and quivering columns. In another7 moment we see them emerging and dashing on with diminished numbers and in broken order against the second line, which is advancing against them as fast as it can to retrieve the fortune of the charge. It was a terrible moment. "God help them ;10 they are lost!" was the exclamation of more than one man, and the thought of many. With unabated 11 fire the noble hearts dashed at their enemy. It was a fight of heroes. The first line of Russians, which had been smashed 12 utterly by our charge, and had fled off at one flank and towards 13 the centre, were coming back to swallow up 14 our handful of men.

By sheer steel and sheer courage 15 Enniskillener and Scot were winning their desperate way right 16 through the enemy's squadrons, and already grey horses and red coats had appeared right at the rear 17 of the second mass, when

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7 Turn in another by 'in the next.'

8 Dashing on, losstürmen; with— order, in verminderter Anzahl und in Unordnung.

9 To retrieve, herstellen; charge, here Gefecht.

10 Help them, here steh' ihnen bei. 11 Unabated, ungeschwächt. 12 Smashed, here vernichtet. 13 At- towards, auf der einen Flanke und gegen... zu.

14 To swallow up, verschlingen. 15 Turn By-courage by 'through steel and courage alone.'

16 Render Enniskillener — right by bahnten sich die Enniskiller und Schotten einen gefahrvollen Weg gerade, and turn enemy's by 'hostile.'

17 Right-rear, dicht hinter.


with irresistible force, like one bolt1 from a bow, the 1st Royals, the 4th Dragoon Guards, and the 5th Dragoon Guards rushed at the remnants of the first line of the enemy, went through it as though it were made of pasteboard, and dashing on the second body of Russians as they were still disordered by the terrible assault of the Greys and their companions, put them to utter rout.5 This Russian horse in less than five minutes after it met our dragoons was flying with all its speed before a force certainly not half its strength.8 A cheer burst9 from every lip; in the enthusiasm officers and men 10 took off their caps and shouted with delight ;11 and, thus keeping up the scenic 12 character of their position, they clapped their hands 13 again and again. Lord Raglan at once despatched Lieutenant Curzon, aide-de-camp, to convey his congratulations 14 to Brigadier-General Scarlett, to say, 15 "Well done!"-W. H. RUSSELL, The War in the Crimea.

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clause before-strength concisely by turning it by 'before a certainly not half so numerous force.'

9 A cheer burst, ein Beifallsruf (or ein Hurrah) erscholl.

10 Men, here Gemeine, i.e. privates, or simply Soldaten.

11 To shout with delight, vor Freude jauchzen; thus, here fo; to keep up, aufrecht erhalten.

12 Scenic, theatralisch.

13 They-hands, klatschten die Hände.

14 To- congratulations, um... seinen Glückwunsch zu überbringen.

15 Supply 'to him,' and render Well done! by Bravo!







From October 1779 to 1781.-I had asked my mother one evening to cut my cheese entire, so that I might3 toast it. This was no easy matter, it being a 'crumbly' cheese. My mother, however, did it. I went into the garden for something or other, and in the meantime my brother Frank minced my cheese, to disappoint the favourite. I returned, saw the exploit, and, in an agony of passion, flew at Frank. He pretended to have been seriously hurt by my blow, flung himself on the ground, and there lay with outstretched limbs. I hung over him mourning and in a great fright; he leaped up, and, with a horselaugh, 10 gave me a severe blow on the face. I seized a knife, and was running at him, when my mother came in and took me by the arm. I expected a flogging,12 and, struggling from her, I ran away to a little hill or slope, at the bottom of which 13 the Otter flows, about a mile from

1 The above is an extract from one of five letters which Coleridge addressed to his friend, Mr. Poole, describing his early years.

2 Asked is here synonymous with 'requested;' to-entire should be turned by 'to cut me off the cheese in one piece.'

3 Render might by fönnte. To toast, transl. röften or braten. In Germany cheese is not 'toasted,' and there exists no distinctly corresponding German expression: 4 Turn no easy matter by 'not easy,' and see for being Int. page xvi., c; crumbly, krümelig. Did it, say brachte es zu Stande.

For-other, say um irgend etwas

zu holen.

6 To mince means flein hacken or

schneiden, but may be rendered here by zerbröckeln.

7 To disappoint, transl. zu ärgern, i.e. to vex, annoy.

8 In-passion, briefly in einem Wuthanfall; to fly at, losstürzen auf. 9 Hung, here beugte mich.

10 Horse-laugh, lautes Gelächter; severe, here tüchtig; on = into. 11 To run at any one, auf Jemand zulaufen.

12 A flogging, say Schläge; struggling, mich losreißend.

13 Turn at which by 'at whose foot.' The proper name Otter may be used in German as feminine, in accordance with the rule that most proper names of rivers are feminine, even those ending in er s Die Tiber.




Ottery. There I stayed: my rage died away, but my obstinancy vanquished my fears,2 and taking out a shilling book which had3 at the end morning and evening prayers, I very devoutly repeated them, thinking5 at the same time, with a gloomy inward satisfaction, how miserable my mother must be! I distinctly remember my feelings when I saw a Mr. Vaughan pass over the bridge, at about a furlong's distance, and how I watched the calves in the fields beyond the river. It grew dark, and I fell asleep. It was towards the end of October, and it proved a stormy night. I felt cold in my sleep,9 and dreamed that I was pulling the blanket over me, and actually pulled over me a dry thorn-bush which lay on the ground near me. In my sleep I had rolled from the top of the hill till within 10 three yards of the river, which flowed by the unfenced11 edge of the bottom. I awoke several times, and finding myself 12 wet, and cold, and stiff, closed my eyes again that I might 13 forget it.


In the meantime my mother waited about half an hour, expecting my return when the 'sulks' had evaporated.14 I not returning,15 she sent into the churchyard and round the town. Not found 16 Several men and all the boys were sent out to ramble about 17 and seek me. In vain! My mother was almost distracted;18 and at ten o'clock at

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