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inclosed you 107. bank-note." Which is here [producing note from inside the letter].

MRS. BURR. A ten-pound bank-note!

SAMSON. The dear girl's own saving! Well, a tenpound note! What do we want with his ten-pound note I won't have it. I'll send it back.

ALICE. Not take the money sent by your own son?

SAMSON. [Whispers to her. Bless you, child,1 take it back.] Well, if a father has not a right to return money sent by his own son, what's the good of being a father at all?

MRS. BURR. But, dear Samson, why should you refuse it? SAMSON. Why, don't you see that ?-why, of coursebecause-because

MRS. BURR. The dear boy wishes to assist us in our poverty. It's very natural.

ALICE. Of course it is.

SAMSON. [Whispers to Alice.] "Of course it is!" You wicked little baggage, 2 robbing yourself in that way.

MRS. BURR. Your son gives you a lesson in foresight, that I trust will not be thrown away.

SAMSON. Ah! my son gives me a lesson, does he 3 I am sure I am very much obliged to him.

MRS. BURR. It's his duty, you know.

ALICE. Yes, his duty, uncle.

SAMSON. [Whispers to Alice.] You little pussy,5 to play me such a trick.

;

MRS. BURR. I never heard such nonsense in my life ashamed to take money from your own son! Well, if you are so proud, give it to me; I'll soon find a use for it. JOHN OXENFORD, The Porter's Knot.

1 Bless you, child, transl. laß fein, mein liebes Kind; what's-all, wozu ist man denn überhaupt Vater.

2 You-baggage, Du kleiner Lauge nichts.

3 Turn here, does he by 'so.' 3 See page 193, note 3.

5 Translate here pussy by Schelm, i.e. rogue.

6 Ashamed, say sich schämen.

IX.

SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH.

MY DEAR SIR,

I am

You ask for some of your late father's letters. sorry to say I have none to send you. Upon1 principle, I keep no letters except those on business. I have not a single letter from him, nor from any human being, in my possession.

The impression which the great talents and the amiable qualities of your father made upon me will remain as long as I remain. When I turn from living spectacles 2 of stupidity, ignorance, and malice, and wish to think better of the world, I remember my great and benevolent friend Mackintosh.

The first points of character3 which everybody noticed in him were the total absence of envy, hatred, malice, and uncharitableness. He could not hate; he did not know how to set about it.5 The gall-bladder was omitted in his composition; and if he could have been persuaded into any scheme of revenging himself upon an enemy, I am sure (unless he had been narrowly watched") it would have ended in proclaiming the good qualities and promoting the interests of his adversary. Truth had so much more power over him than anger, that (whatever might be the provocation) he could not misrepresent nor exaggerate. A high merit in Sir James Mackintosh was his real and unaffected philanthropy.

1 Render upon by aus, and those on business by Geschäftsbriefe..

2 Turn spectacles by examples.' 3 Points of character, Charakter züge.

Uncharitableness, Lieblosigkeit. 5 How-it, wie er es anfangen sollte. 6 Render omitted by fehlte, composition by Constitution, and into by zu.

He did not make the

7 Translate unless-watched by wenn man ihm nicht genau aufpaßte, and supply tamit before ended, turning the next clause by 'that he proclaimed the good qualities of his adversary, and promoted the interests of the same.' 8 Unaffected = natural. 9 Did not make, say benußte nicht.

improvement of the great mass of mankind an engine of popularity and a stepping-stone to power,1 but he had a genuine love of human happiness. Whatever might assuage the angry passions, and arrange the conflicting interests of nations; whatever could promote peace, increase knowledge, extend commerce, diminish crime, and encourage industry; whatever could exalt human character, and could enlarge human understanding, struck at once at2 the heart of your father, and roused all his faculties. -SYDNEY SMITH, Letter on the Character of Sir James Mackintosh.

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There is yet a third* and the highest stage of historical investigation, in which the aim is not simply to compose histories, but to construct a science of history. In this view the whole of the events which have befallen the human race, and the states through which it has passed, are regarded as a series of phenomena produced by causes, and susceptible of explanation. All history is conceived as a progressive chain of causes and effects, or (by an apter metaphor) as a gradually unfolding web,

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1 An-power, say zum Werkzeug um populär und zum Mittel um mäch tig zu werden.

2 Struck-at, berührte sofort.

3 The science of history is called in German Philosophie der Geschichte. The first traces of this science are found in Kant's Ideen zur allgemeinen Geschichte," &c. The same

system was more fully developed by Herder in his,,Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit."

4 See page 91, note 14. Investigation, Forschung.

5 Turn susceptible by 'capable,' and All by the whole.'

6 Progressive, here fortlaufende. 7 Unfolding, fich entfaltend.

The two other stages are, according to the author: 1st. 'when all ages and forms of human life are referred to the standard of that in which the writer himself lives;' and, 2nd. 'when it is attempted to realize a true and living picture of the past time clothed in its circumstances and peculiarities.'

in which every fresh part that comes to view is a prolon gation of the part previously unrolled, whether we can trace the separate threads from the one into the other, or not. The facts of each generation are looked upon as one complex phenomenon caused by the generation preceding, and causing in its turn those of the next in order. That these states must follow one another according to some law is considered1 certain: how to read that law is deemed the fundamental problem of the science of history. To find on what principles, derived from the nature of man and the laws of the outward world, each state of society and of the human mind produced that which came after it, and whether there can be traced any order of production sufficiently definite to show what future states of society may be expected to emanate from the circumstances which exist at present, is the aim of historical philosophy in its third stage.-JOHN STUART MILL, Dissertations and Discussions.

XI

THE EARL OF CLANCARTY.

Near fourteen years before this time Sunderland, then Secretary of State3 to Charles the Second, had married1 his daughter, Lady Elizabeth Spencer, to Donough Macarthy, Earl of Clancarty, the lord 5 of an immense domain in Munster. Both the bridegroom and the bride were mere children; the bridegroom only fifteen, the bride only eleven. After the ceremony they were separated; and

1 See page 85, note 2. Fundamental problem, Grundproblem.

2 To find on, herauszufinden nach. 3 Secretary of State, Staate. minister.

To marry to, i.e. to dispose of in wedlock, is rendered in German

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by verheirathen an.-The marriage alluded to took place in 1684.

5 Turn lord by 'possessor.' 6 Render the bridegroom by der junge Gatte, and the bride by die junge Frau.

7 Ceremony, say Trauung.

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many years full of strange vicissitudes1 elapsed before they again met. The boy soon visited his estates in Ireland. He had been bred2 a member of the Church of England; but his opinions and his practice3 were loose. He found himself among kinsmen who were zealous Roman Catholics. A Roman Catholic king was on the throne. To turn Roman Catholic was the best recommendation to favour both at Whitehall and at Dublin Castle. Clancarty speedily changed his religion, and from a dissolute Protestant became a dissolute Papist.5 After the Revolution he followed the fortunes of James; sate in the Celtic Parliament which met at the King's Inns; commanded a regiment in the Celtic army; was forced to surrender himself to Marlborough at Cork; was sent to England, and was imprisoned in the Tower. The Clancarty estates, which were supposed to yield a rent? . of not much less than ten thousand a year, were confiscated. They were charged with an annuity to the Earl's brother, and with another annuity to his wife: but the greater part was bestowed by the king on Lord Woodstock, the eldest son of Portland.

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During some time the prisoner's life was not safe. For the popular voice accused him of outrages for which the utmost licence of civil war would not furnish a plea. is said that he was threatened with an appeal of 10 murder by the widow of a Protestant clergyman who had been put to death during the troubles. After passing three years in confinement, Clancarty made his escape to the

1 Vicissitudes, here Unglücksfälle. 2 The rule mentioned page 85, note 2, with regard to the verb betrachten, is here also to be applied to the verb bred.

3 Practice, say Lebensweise. Omit the term Roman in the following

cases.

4 Retain the same expressions. 5 Retain the same term, and translate he-fortunes by knüpfte er sein Geschick an das.

6 Turn met at by 'assembled in,' and retain the expressions King's Inns and Tower.

7 Employ the corresponding foreign expression, and insert the word Pfund after thousand.

8 Charged, here belastet; bestowed, zugetheilt.

9 Turn popular voice by 'public opinion,' outrages by crimes.' Licence, Bügellosigkeit. Would is to be rendered by the imperfect of fönnen, and furnish a plea by eine Entschuldigung darbieten.

10 Appeal of, here Anflage auf.— Troubles, when applied to 'public disturbances,' is rendered in German by Unruhen or Wirren.

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