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did not force their way, and encouraged each other, with loud cries, to plunge through and assault him. But by this time the king's soldier's came up to his assistance, and the Galloway men retreated and gave up their enterprise.--WALTER SCOTT, Tales of a Grandfather.

II.

SCHILLER'S FLIGHT FROM STUTTGART.2

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Schiller's embarassments became more pressing than ever. With the natural feeling of a young author, he had ventured to go in secrets and witness the first representation of his tragedy at Mannheim. His incognito

say: nicht den Uebergang erzwängen; eries, Geschrei, sing.; to plunge through, durchwaten.

1 Avoid the Anglicism bei dieser Zeit for by this time which should be rendered by jest or nun; or here by the more emphatic schon; came— assistance, famen... demselben zu Hülfe herbei.

2 For the benefit of those who are not acquainted with the life of Schiller, we will briefly add that, after having been educated at the Military Academy at Stuttgart, later called Die Karlsschule," after the founder, Duke Karl of Würtemberg, he became military surgeon, and continued to be kept under strict military discipline. Having been refused permission to visit Mannheim in order to witness the performance of his first drama, Die Räuber, he did so clandestinely, and was put under arrest for a fortnight, and forbidden to write in future on anything except on medicine. He then threw up his

post and freed himself by flight. 3 Embarrassment, Verlegenheit. 4 Pressing, dringend.

5 When the adverb ever signifies at any time' past or future, it is rendered by jemals, or the more expressive je. Compare the French jamais and the Latin unquam.

6 Author, Autor or Schriftsteller.

7 When the object of a sentence is a supine or a whole clause, and the leading verb in the principal sentence governs the accusative case, we generally add to that principal sentence-the accusative of the pronoun es, in order to supply the direct object; more particu larly when the emphasis is laid on the governing verb: e.g. Wer wagt es, Rittersmann oder Knapp, zu tauchen in diesen Schlund? Who ventures, knight, or squire, to dive into this gulf?

To secret, sich heimlich aufzumachen; to witness, i.e. to see by personal presence, beiwohnen. 9 Representation, here Aufführung.

* According to our opinion, the pronoun es, in the above application might properly be called the grammatical object.

C

did not conceal him; he was put under arrest during a week for this offence; and as the punishment did not deter him from again transgressing2 in a similar manner, he learned that it was in contemplation to try more rigorous measures with him. Dark hints were given to him of some exemplary 5 as well as imminent severity; and Dalberg's aid, the sole hope of averting it by quiet means, was distant and dubious. Schiller saw himself reduced to extremities. Beleaguered with present distresses and the most horrible forebodings on every side, roused to the highest pitch of indignation, yet forced to keep silence 10 and wear the face of patience, he could endure this maddening11 constraint no longer.

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He resolved to be free, at whatever risk;12 to abandon advantages which he could not buy at such a price; to quit his stepdame 13 home, and go forth, though friendless and alone, to seek his fortune in the great market of life.14 Some 15 foreign duke or prince was arriving at Stuttgart; and all the people were in movement, occupied with seeing the spectacle of his entrance: Schiller seized this opportunity of retiring from 16 the city, careless whither he went, so17 he got beyond the reach of turnkeys and

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sion. Distresses, Nöthen; on, von.
9 Roused-indignation, bis auf
den höchsten Grad entrüstet.

10 To keep silence, still zu schweigen; face = mask.

11 Maddening, transl. ihn bis zur Raserei treibenden.

=

12 At-risk, auf jere Gefahr hin; abandon give up. 13 Stepdame, stiefmütterlich; to go forth, fortzuwandern; to seek, here versuchen.

14 We use in German the metaphor der Jahrmarkt des Lebens.

15 Some, irgend ein; occupied with seeing, nur darauf bedacht... mit anzusehen; entrance, Einzug.

16 Of-from, aus... zu flüchten; careless, unbekümmert.

17 So, used in the sense of 'provided that,' is rendered by wofern, wenn nur; got-reach, aus dem Bereich ...fäme.

grand-dukes and commanding officers. It was in the month of October, 1782. *

* *

Schiller was1 in his twenty-third year when he left Stuttgart. He says he "went empty away 2-empty in purse and hope." The future was, indeed, sufficiently dark before him. *** Yet his situation, though gloomy enough, was not entirely without its brighter side. He was now a free man-free, however poor.-CARLYLE, Life of Schiller.

III.

SILHOUETTES.

Etienne de Silhouette was Minister of State in France in5 1759. The treasury6 was in an exhausted condition, and Silhouette endeavoured to save the country by excessive economy. At first the Parisians pretended to take his advice, merely to laugh at him :8 they cut their coats shorter, and wore them without sleeves; they turned9 their gold snuff-boxes into rough wooden ones; 10 and the new-fashioned portraits were now only profiles 11 traced by a black pencil round the shadow of a profile cast by candle on white paper. 12 These portraits retained 13 since those times the name of Silhouette.

1 Was = stood.

previously mentioned, or merely

2 Away, von dannen; in, im; understood, it is suppressed in supply arm an before hope. Was, say: lag.

Its brighter side, Lichtseite. 5 Cf. Ext. 49, n. 6; Ext. 4, n. a. 6 Treasury, Schazkammer; was, befand sich; condition, Zustand; by, durch; economy, Sparsamkeit.

7 To pretend, fich stellen; to take =as if they...followed.

8 To-him, um sich über ihn lustig zu machen.

9 To turn into, vertauschen mit. 10 When one is used after adjectives, as a substitute for a noun

German. Rough, roh.
11 Were-profiles, beftanten nun
bloß aus Profilen.

12 Traced-paper. The above sentence must be given in German in a thoroughly different form, viz. 'which with a pencil round the through a candle on white paper cast shadow of a profile were traced' (gezeichnet). For round, cf. Ext. 40; on, auf governs here the accusative.

13 To retain, beibehalten; for times, cf. Ext. 50, n. a.

IV.

PERHAPS IT WAS HIS UNCLE.

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We were towing1 through high reeds this morning, the men invisible, and the rope mowing over the high tops of the grass,2 when the noise disturbed a hippopotamus from his slumber, and he was immediately perceived close to the boat. He was about half-grown, and in an instant about twenty men jumped into the water in search of him, thinking him a mere baby;5 but as he suddenly appeared, and was about three times as large as they had expected, they were not very eager to close. However, the reis Diabb pluckily led the way, and seized him by the hind leg, when the crowd of men rushed in, and we had a grand tussle. Ropes were thrown from the vessel, and nooses were quickly slipped over his head; but he had the best of the struggle, 10 and was dragging the people into the open river. I was therefore obliged to end11 the sport by putting 12 a ball through his head. He was scored all over13 by the tusks of some other hippopotamus that had been bullying 14 him. The men declared that his father had thus misused 15 him; others were of opinion that it was his mother; and the argument ran high, and

1 To tow, bugfiren; reeds, Schilf, sing.; mowing, dahinfahrend. 2 Tops-grass, Grasspißen. 3 Half-grown, halb ausgewachsen. 4 About-men, an...Mann; inhim in order to seek it.

5 Thinking-baby, da sie es für ein bloßes Kind hielten; appeared, say: auftauchte; eager to close, be gierig es anzugreifen.

6 Reis means in Turkish the captain of a merchantman.

To lead the way pluckily, muthig vorangehen.

8 When, here worauf; in, hinein. Slipped over his, ihm... über den... gezogen.

10 To have the best of a struggle, die Oberhand bekommen.

11 To end, here ein Ende machen; sport, Jagd.

12 By putting, indem ich... jagte; ball, Kugel; his the.

13 Was-over, war über und über wie geferbt; tusk, Hauzahn.

14 There is no single equivalent in German for the comprehensive term to bully. The expressions given in the Dictionaries are mostly quite inappropriate. We should suggest here the idiomatic phrase das ihm übel mitgespielt hatte.

15 To misuse, mißhandeln; to be of opinion, der Meinung sein.

became bot.1 These Arabs have an extraordinary taste2 for arguments upon the most trifling points. I have frequently known my men argues throughout the greater part of the night, and recommence the same argument on the following morning. These debates generally end in a fight; and in the present instance the excitement of the hunt only added to the heat of the argument.

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They at length agreed to refer it to me,5 and both parties approached, vociferously advancing their theories;" one half persisting that the young hippo had been bullied by his father, and the others adhering to the mother as the cause.8 I being referee, suggested that perhaps it was his uncle." "Wah Illahi sahé!" (By Allah, it is true !) Both parties were satisfied with the suggestion.10 Dropping their theory, they became practical, and fell toll with knives and axes to cut up the cause of the argument.-SIR S. W. BAKER, The Albert N'Yanza.

V.

A ROMAN STRATAGEM. 12

The place near the Mulucha was a rocky eminence in the midst of a plain. On the summit13 there was just room enough for a small town.

1 Turn the-hot by 'the dispute became loud and violent.'

2 Taste, here Vorliebe; argument, Discussion; trifling, geringfügig. 3 I-argue, ich habe es oft erlebt, daß meine Leute...disputirten; debates, Debatten; instance, Fall.

4 Only-to, erhöhete...nur noch. 5 To me, mich zu befragen. 6 Advancing their theories, in. dem sie ihre Meinungen...vorbrachten. 7 Render one half persisting, by die Einen bestanden darauf.

8 And-cause. More briefly, in German, während Andere die Mutter als die Ursache angaben.

The sides 14 of this hill

9 Being, say als; suggested, meinte. 10 Suggestion, Ansicht; dropping, indem sie...aufgaben.

11 Fell to, machten sich daran; to cut up, zu zerlegen.

12 The above is an episode from the famous Jugurthine war, at the time when Marius was in command of the Roman army in Africa. The learned author from whose work the extract is taken conjectures that the siege of the fort near the Mulucha, (unweit der Mulucha) took place in 106 B.C.

1s Summit, Gipfel; just, gerade. 14 Sides, here Abhänge.

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