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fort1 were steep and very high, and there was only one narrow approach to the town, for all the rest of the mountain was as precipitous as if it had been made so by the hand of man. This place contained Jugurtha's money, and Marius was very eager to get possession of it. But this was not an easy undertaking. The place had sufficient men to defend it, a good supply of provisions and a spring of water. It could not be attacked in the usual way, by raising earth-banks and towers, and employing other military contrivances. The single road by which the place was reached was not only very narrow, but steep on both sides, either naturally so,10 orll the ground had been cut away.

* * *

Many days passed, and nothing was done, when a lucky accident 12 helped Marius out of his difficulty. A Ligurian,13 who belonged to the auxiliary cohorts,14 and

1 Hill-fort, Bergfeste; there-approach, nur ein schmaler Weg führte. 2 The rest, der übrige Theil.

3 Translate hand of man, by the expressive term Menschenhand. The student of German will soon discover that that language possesses greater facilities in compounding words forming one notion into a single term than any other modern language. Great vigour and poetic colouring is thus imparted to words which, when merely linked together by means of adverbs and prepositions, produce no particular effect; and as an additional advantage afforded by these compounds, may be mentioned the possibility of avoiding the frequent repetition of the genitive relation, a drawback from which even the Latin is not free. Nobody should, however, coin new compound terms without having mastered the language. Special rules and hints for forming compound substantives will be given in the course of the present work.

4 Money, say: Schat; eager, begierig; to it, fich dessen zu bemäch tigen; not an, fein; men, Mannschaft.

5 A-provisions, Vorräthe genug. 6 Render spring of water by Brunnen.

7 By-towers, durch die Errichtung von Dämmen und Thürmen. The military expressions are Vertheidigungsdämme and Wandelthürme, .e. walking towers.'

8 Employing, transl. durch die Anwendung; contrivance, Vorrichtung.

9 Turn the-reached by 'the only way which led to the place.'

10 Naturally so, say: von Natur. 11 Supply the conjunction weil; to cut away, here abtragen.

12 Accident, here Zufall.

13 There are various forms in German for the proper name Ligurian, all of which have the same form in both numbers. In accordance with the Greek Aiques we have the word Ligher; whilst the forms Ligurier, Ligurer, and Ligurianer, are derived from the Latin Ligur.

14 The expression auxiliary cohorts may be turned in German into one compound term by omitting the letter y in the first, and replacing s by en in the second, word.


had gone out of the camp to fetch water, saw some snails crawling1 among the rocks on the back of the hill-fort. He picked up one or two; and as he went on picking more, he came at last almost to the top of the hill. Being curious to reach the very summit, he made his way up with some difficulty, and had a full view of the flat on which the town was built; for all the Numidians were engaged on the opposite side, where the fight was going on. Having well examined the place, and carefully observed 10 the way down, he reported his discovery to Marius, and urged him to make an attempt11 on the fort by the part 12 where he had climbed up, offering to lead the way. Marius sent a few men who were about him, and the Ligurian with them,13 to examine the track that had been discovered. The reports of the men varied.14 Some said that the thing was 15 easy, and others that it was difficult. However, the general had some confidence that the plan would do.16 Accordingly, he selected five trumpeters and hornblowers,17 the most active 18 that he could find, and four centurions 19 to look after them. ***

The little company 20 were directed to obey the Ligurian as their21 guide, and the next day was appointed for the

1 Cf. Int. p. xviii.

2 Back, Rückseite.

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13 Render with them by fammt, placing this preposition before the

3 Turn he-more, by whilst he words the Ligurian. picked up always more.'

See Int. page xvi., c.

5 The word very, in the sense in which it is used here, must be rendered in German by selbst. 6 Made-ap-went up. 7 Numidian, Numidier. 8 Was going on, stattfand. 9 Having well examined, say: nachdem er...genau besichtigt.

10 Carefully observed, say: fich...... gut gemerkt hatte; down, here hinunter. 11 Attempt = attack.

12 By the part, von der Seite aus. Two prepositions are frequently used in German, as is the case here, in order to express direction, or the course of a motion.

14 Varied, lauteten verschieden, i.e. 'sounded contradictory." 15 See page 29, note 3.

16 The verb to do is here a synonym of 'to succeed.'

17 The Romans are known to have had two kinds of military musicians, viz. trumpeters and hornblowers.

18 Active, here energisch.

19 The plural of Centurio is, in German, Centurios, or more usually Centurionen; to-them, auf sie Acht zu geben.

20 Company, here Truppe; were directed, turn by 'received the order;' to obey, here folgen.

21 Use here the dative.

ascent. The snail-picker1 had no doubt often climbed his native rocks and mountains; but his companions were less expert than himself. However, after a good deal of trouble and much fatigue, they reached the summit, at the back of the town. They found all quiet, for the men, as on previous occasions, were fighting with the Romans on the opposite side. Marius had kept the Numidians actively engaged all that day3 up to the time when he was informed that the Ligurian and his party had reached the summit of the hill. He then came out from under the vineæ,1 and cheering5 his men, ordered them to advance to the wall with their shields interlaced over their heads in the manner which the Romans named "testudo," or tortoise. At the same time the enemy were assailed with missiles from the engines, and with arrows and slings. The Numidians, who had often destroyed and burnt the vineæ, did not fight from the walls, but confidently came out in front of them.9 While the battle

was raging, all at once the sound of horns and trumpets was heard at the back of the town. The women and children, who had crowded to 10 the front to see the fight, fled back in alarm; they were followed by those who were nearest to the wall;11 and at last all the Numidians turned their backs.12 The Romans pressed upon them,1


1 Snail-picker, Schneckensammler; native, here heimathlich. The Italian district formerly called 'Liguria' is traversed by the Maritime Alps and the Apennines. Climbed, erflommen. 2 After-fatigue, nach vieler Mühe und Anstrengung.

3 Had-day, hatte die Numidier den ganzen Tag im Kampf beschäftigt.

4 The Latin term vinea may be rendered by Lauben- or Laufgang hütten, or by the more expressive Laufhallen, i.e. running halls.

5 Cheering = encouraging. 6 Turn with their by the;' interlaced, transl. zusammengehalten. 7 Use the singular number. 8 When the adversative conjunction but merely limits the an


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and passing over1 the bodies of the killed and wounded, made their way2 to the wall without stopping to plunder,3 as we are told, though we cannot conceive that a poor Numidian had anything upon him that was worth taking.6 -GEORGE LONG, Decline of the Roman Republic.



There was, at all events, one class by which the memory of Joseph II. was long and fondly cherished;8 and it was that to the sympathies of which he would have best loved to make his appeal. The Austrian peasantry 10 of German blood are at once an eminently loyal race, and one on which" affection and kindness are rarely thrown away. They were never misled in their judgment of him.' Even when 12 kneeling before the carriage of the pope,13 they had no idea 14 that they were

1 Passing over, indem sie... dahin schritten.

2 Made their way, kamen sie. 3 Without-plunder, ohne sich mit Plündern aufzuhalten.

4 To tell belonging to that class of verbs mentioned in Ext. 22, note b, we cannot use it in the passive voice in German unless we employ it impersonally; as, I am told, mir wird gesagt. Here we should render as we are told wie wir berichtet werden. 5 Though-conceive, obwohl wir uns nicht denken können; upon him, bei sich

6 That-taking, das des Nehmens werth gewesen wäre.

7 The impersonal phrases there is, there was, are rendered by es gibt, es gab, when existence is to be expressed in an indefinite manner,

as is the case here (compare the French il y a); but if existence is to be expressed in a definite manner, we must use the corresponding form of the verb sein.

By-cherished, bei der Joseph der 3weite lange in theurem Andenken stand. 9 Render to-appeal, by an deren Sympathie er am liebsten hätte appelliren mögen.

10 Peasantry = peasants; blood, here Abkunft; a-race, eine außer ordentlich loyale Rasse.

11 And-which, bei der.
12 See page 41, note 9.

13 Pope Pius VI. visited Vienna in 1782 with a view to persuade the emperor to desist from his ecclesiastical reforms.

14 No idea, transl. keine Idee da,



assuming an attitude of opposition to1 their friend and emperor. No royal name lives among them at this day in reverential tradition so truly2 as that of Kaiser Joseph. Their estimates of him cannot be better expressed than in the simple apologue which is still current in Austria. The peasantry of a Styrian village are met to discuss the news of Joseph's death. They will not believe it. It is a lie of the Court nobles, the lawyers, the lazy friars. While they are debating, information is brought of the arrival, bit by bit,10 of the old order of things: the Carthusians have 11 returned to the neighbouring abbey; the Capuchins have resumed their rounds;12 the Forstmeister13 and the gamekeeper have reoccupied 14 their lodges; and the 15 steward is sitting at the receipt 15 of feudal dues. The oldest peasant rises and takes off his hat: "Then Joseph is dead indeed; may Heaven have mercy 16 on his soul."-H. MERIVALE, Historical Studies.

1 An-to, eine feindliche Stellung gegen; royal, here fürstlich.

2 Lives - truly, erfreut sich bei ihnen bis auf diesen Tag einer solchen traditionellen Ehrfurcht.

3 If we do not wish to render the above sentence freely, we must translate the term estimate by Meinung, expressed by bezeichnet, and turn in by 'through.'

4 Apologue, Sage; is-current, noch im Umlauf ist.

5 Styrian, steierisch.

6 Use the perfect of sich verfammeln; to discuss, besprechen.

7 Translate this and the following it by the neuter pronoun, the same referring to a statement in general.

8 Court nobles = courtiers. 9 To debate, debattiren; information, die Nachricht.

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10 Turn the bit by the gradual introduction;' order, here Ordnung. 11 See page 24, note 10.

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