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VII.

THE SHAKERS' DINNER.

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These Shakers dine in silence.2 Brothers and sisters dine in a common room, at tables ranged in a line, a few feet apart. They eat at six in the morning, at noon, at six in the evening; following in this respect a rule which is all but uniform8 in America, especially in the western parts of this continent, from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. They rally to the sound of a bell; file 10 into the eating-room in a single line, women going 10 up to one end of the room, men to the other, when" they drop on their knees for a short and silent prayer; sit down and eat, helping 12 each other to the food. Not a word is 13 spoken, unless a brother should need some help from a brother, a sister from a sister.14

1 The Shakers are a religious sect in America, the chief home of which is the village of Mount Lebanon, situated in the upper country of the Hudson River. The English term Shaker may be retained in German, although it is translated by some writers by the coined expression Schütter-Quäfer, or the more euphonic Zitterer.

2 Dine in silence, effen schweigend zu Mittag; dine (in), speisen, &c.

3 Common is here to be rendered by gemeinschaftlich; the simple form gemein would signify mean.'

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4 Turn ranged, &c., by which are ranged (aufgestellt) in a line, (Reihe), some feet apart, (von einander).

5 Cf. Ext. 32, note d.

6 Similar adverbial expressions are expressed in German by the genitive case, with or without the definite article, when they denote

an habitual occurrence of an action.

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11 When, worauf.

12 There is no single equivalent for the expression to help, and its derivatives, in the sense of 'to present to at table.' It may be rendered by fich bedienen, anbieten, or reichen. The last term should be used here.

13 See Extr. 4, note b.

14 In accordance with the remark made in the last note but one, we must turn the whole phrase by 'unless it be that a brother from a brother, or a sister from a sister, should want something to be reached' (etwas gereicht haben wollte).

A whisper serves. No one2 gossips with her neighbour, for every one is busy with her own affairs. Even the help that any one may need is given and taken3 without thanks; such forms of courtesy 5 and politeness not being considered necessary in a family of saints.

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Elder Frederick sits at the end, not at the head, of one table; Elderess Antoinette at the other end. The food, though it is very good of its kind, and very well cooked,' is simple, being9 wholly, or almost wholly, produce of the earth; tomatoes, roast apples, peaches, potatoes, squash,10 hominy, boiled corn, and the like. The grapes are excellent, reminding me of those of Bethlehem; and the eggs-hard" eggs boiled eggs, scrambled eggs are delicious. The drink 12 is water, milk, and tea. Then we have pies,13 tarts, candies, 14 dried fruits, and syrups. For my own part, 15 being a Gentile and a sinner, I have been indulged 16 in cutlets, chickens, and home-made wines.17

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"Good food and sweet 18

1 To serve being here a synonym of 'to suffice,' translate by genügen.

2 The assertion referring to the female portion of the company, we must employ the feminine of Kein, and of the corresponding term, Jeter, for every one. Transl. with— affairs by mit sich selbst.

3 Here again we must express the whole phrase by some other turn, viz. even when something is reached to any one, it is offered and accepted.'

4 Thanks, here Danksagung; Dank alone might imply that the help offered was ungratefully or ungraciously received.

5 Courtesy, feiner Anstand. 6 Elder, Aeltester. The article may here be omitted in accordance with the rule, that common names used as titles before proper names require no article.

7 Turn at--table by at the lower, not at the upper, end of the one table.' Elderess, Aeltefte.

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8 Turn of by 'in.'

Well cooked, sorgfältig zubereitet; being, say: da fie...aus...besteht. 10 Squash, Kürbiß; corn, here Mais; the like, dergleichen.

11 Hard-eggs, hart- und weichgefochte Eier, Rühreier.

12 Drink, Getränk; is, besteht aus. 13 Pies, when not made of meat, as is evidently the case here, retain the English name in German; meat pies are called Fleischpasteten, or simply Pasteten.

14 Candy, Zuckerwerk, is used in German in the singular only; and the equivalent of syrup, denoting the sweet juice of fruits, is Fruchtfaft. The word Sirup is employed in German for treacle.

15 For my own part, was mich betrifft; being, da ich...bin.

16 Use the passive imperfect of regaliren (mit).

17 We use in German for the expression home-made wine the general term Obstwein, i.e. fruit-wine.' 18 Turn here sweet by 'fresh.'

only medicines." The rosy flesh1 of his people, a tint but rarely seen in the United States, appears to answer very well for his assertion,2 that in such a place no other physic is required.3

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No words being spoken during meals, about twenty minutes serves them amply for repast. One minute more, and the table is swept bare of dishes; the plates, the knives and forks, the napkins, the glass, are cleaned and polished; every articles is returned to its proper place, and the sweet, soft l sense of order is restored.HEPWORTH DIXON, New America.

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VIII.

BEN JONSON.11

Ben Jonson had written conjointly 12 with Chapman and Marston a comedy which contained some passages reflecting 13 on the Scottish nation. The authors were thrown into prison, and threatened 14 with the loss of their ears

1 Flesh, transl. Teint, m. (from the Latin tingere), to be pronounced in German as in French; the United States, die Vereinigten Staaten.

2 To-assertion, die Wahrheit seiner Behauptung zu bestätigen.

3 To be required, nöthig sein. The assertion being here a quotation from another person (oratio obliqua), the verb must be used in the conjunctive (called by some grammarians subjunctive) mood, which mood we should also use in Latin. 4 Use in German the singular. Cf. Int. p. xvi., c, and Ext. 4, n. b 5 The term meals must here be turned by the eating,' to avoid the unnecessary repetition of the same expression in one and the same short sentence.

6 Use here, in German, the plural, and render more by noch.

7 Swept-dishes, say briefly abgedeckt.

8 Glass must be rendered by Glasgeschirr, if it is to denote in general the various articles made of glass. Render article by Stück.

9 Is-to, befindet sich wieder an.

10 For sweet and soft we should prefer in German the epithets beautiful,' 'friendly;' sense, here Gefühl.

11 Ben Jonson was a contemporary of Shakespeare, to whom he is considered second as a dramatist.

12 Conjointly, gemeinschaftlich; passage (in a book), Stelle.

13 Turn reflecting by the present participle of 'to blame,' using it as an attributive adjective.

14 The simple verb drohen would here be inapplicable, since it is an intransitive verb, and could

and noses. Jonson had no considerable share in1 the composition of the piece,2 and was, besides, in such favour,3 that he would not have been involved; but he voluntarily accompanied his two friends to prison, determined to share their fate. They were not tried ; and when Jonson was set at liberty, he gave an entertainment to his friends. His mother was present on this joyous occasion, and she produced a paper of poison, which, she said, she in tended to have given her son in his liquor10 rather than he should submit to personal mutilation and disgrace, and another dose, which she intended" afterwards to have taken herself.11

IX.

A MAIDEN SPEECH.12

The season 13 had hardly commenced when the "Bill 14 for regulating Trials in Cases

therefore not be used in the passive voice. But this verb can assume a transitive meaning by means of the prefix be.

1 To have a share in anything, an einer Sache Antheil haben; composition, here Abfassung.

2 The piece alluded to was called Eastward Hoe.

3 The idiomatic expression is, in German, to stand in favour.'

4 Involved, in die Sache verwickelt, to be used here in the passive voice. 5 To try, here vor Gericht stellen. 6 Entertainment being here synonymous with 'feast, banquet,' transl. Gastmahl.

7 To produce, here zeigen; of = with.

8 Turn which-she by which she, as she said.'

9 Intended-given, hätte geben

wollen.

10 Liquor, here Getränk; thansubmit, als daß er sich...unterwürfe; another dose, eine zweite Dosis.

of High Treason

11 To intend, beabsichtigen; herself, say: selbst zu nehmen.

was

to

12 As the nearest approach to the idiomatic English expression maiden speech, there has been coined the term Erstlingsrede, i.e. 'firstling-speech,' in the same way as we say Erstlingslied for the first song written by a poet or set to music by a composer. Some dictionaries translate maiden speech by erste Rede only, which is neither a characteristic nor a convenient general expression. The literal translation, Jungfernrede, coined by some contemporary German writers, does not grammatically convey the same meaning as the English expression.

13 The Parliamentary' season is called in German Session.

14 Retain the English expression, using it as a fem. noun.

15 For-Treason, um das Gerichtsverfahren in Hochverrathssachen zu reguliren; Commons = House.

again laid on the table of the Commons. Of the debates to which it gave occasion1 nothing is known except one interesting circumstance,2 which has been preserved by tradition. Among those who supported the Bill appeared conspicuous a young Whig of high rank, of ample 5 fortune, and of great abilities, which had been assiduously improved by study. This was Anthony Ashley Cooper, Lord' Ashley, eldest son of the second Earl of Shaftesbury, and grandson of that renowned politicians who had, in the days of Charles the Second, been at one time the most unprincipled of ministers, and at another the most unprincipled of demagogues. Ashley had just been returned to Parliament1o for the borough of Poole, and was 11 in his twenty-fifth year. In the course of his speech12 he faltered, stammered, and seemed to lose the thread of his reasoning. 13 The House-then, as now, indulgent to 14 novices, and then, as now, well aware that, on a first appearance, 15 the hesitation which is the effect 16 of modesty and sensibility 17 is quite as promising a sign as volubility of utterance and ease of manner19_

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1 Occasion, here Veranlassung. 2 The term circumstance being here a synonym of 'incident,' we must render it by Zwischenfall.

3 Has been preserved, transl. auf uns gekommen ist.

4 Appeared conspicuous, zeichnete sich besonders. aus.

...

5 Turn ample by 'great,' and the subsequent adjective great by bedeutend. Intelligent students will soon find out that it is not always possible or advisable to use the same epithets in all languages.

6 Turn which study by which had been improved (gepflegt waren) through industry and study.'

7 Titles like Lord, Lady, Earl, &c., should remain untranslated.

8 Politician statesman.

9 Use in both cases the nominative singular; unprincipled, gewis. fenlos.

10 To be returned to Parliament, ins Parlament gewählt werden. 11 Turn was by 'stood'

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12 When the term speech is a synonym of discourse,oration,' it must be rendered by Rere; but when denoting the faculty of uttering articulate sounds,' it is in German Sprache. To falter, stocken.

13 For reasoning we may use here the expressive term Gedankengang; then, here damals.

14 To, gegen; well aware, überzeugt. 15 On-appearance, beim ersten Auftreten; hesitation, Stoden.

16 Turn effect by 'consequence,' and use the indefinite article.

17 Sensibility, here Schüchternheit, i.e. timidity."

18 Whenever the article is used with an attributive adjective, it must, in German, precede the same. Quite as is here to be rendered by eben so, and promising by vielversprechend.

19 Translate volubility of utterance by the compound expression Zungengeläufigkeit, and ease of manner

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