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encouraged him to proceed. "How can I, Sir,"1 said the young orator, recovering himself,2 "produce a stronger argument in favour of this Bill than my own failure ?4 My fortune,5 my character, my life, are not at stake. I am speaking to an audience whose kindness might well inspire me with courage. And yet, from mere nervousness, from mere want of practice in addressing 8 large assemblies, I have lost my recollection; I am unable 10 to go on with my argument. How helpless, then, must be a poor man who, never having opened his lips in public, is called upon 12 to reply, without a moment's preparation,13 to the ablest and most experienced advocates in the kingdom, and whose faculties 14 are paralysed by the thought, that if he fails 15 to convince his hearers, he will in a few hours die on a gallows, and leave beggary and infamy to those who are dearest to him!" 16 It may


by Leichtigkeit im Vortrag; to proceed, fortfahren.

1 Retain the English word, or say Herr Präsident, which expression would be used in a German Parliament.

2 To recover oneself, sich sammeln. 3 To produce, here vorbringen. The term argument-to be pronounced as a German word-may be retained.

4 The term failure, in its comprehensive signification, has no single equivalent, neither in German nor, I think, in most other modern languages. Here the word -Mißgeschick, i.e. 'ill-fate,' might properly be used.

5 Fortune standing here for 'possessions, wealth,' is to be rendered by Vermögen; character, Ruf; are, &c., stehn nicht aufdem Spiele. 6 When the word audience, refers, as is the case here, to an assembly consisting of regularly appointed members, we generally use the word Versammlung; when referring to an assembly of promiscuous listeners, it may also be rendered by Publikum, and an assembly consisting more particu

larly of students, &c. is called Auti torium or Zuhörerschaft.

7 From, aus; nervousness, transl. Aengstlichkeit.


8 In addressing to speak before. 9 My recollection, transl. Fassung, or, less literally, den Faden, i.e. the thread.

10 To be unable, nicht im Stande fein; argument, here Gegenstand.

11 Who-public. Turn the whole clause briefly by 'who has never spoken publicly,' connecting it with the following clause by und nun.

12 To be called upon, aufgefordert werden. Place to reply after kingdom. 13 In order to translate the phrase without a moment's preparation with literal faithfulness, we should be obliged to spin it out to 'without that one grants him even (auch nur) a moment to his preparation;' but we can easily avoid this turn by simply saying ohne irgend welche Vorbereitung.

14 Faculties, Geisteskräfte. 15 That-fails, daß er, wenn es ihm nicht gelingt, on a, am.

16 And-him. This clause will best be turned by 'and will leave behind those who are the dearest

reasonably be suspected1 that Ashley's confusion and the ingenious2 use which he made of it had been carefully premeditated.3 His speech, however, made a great impression.—MACAULAY, History of England.



On the evening of the battle an officer of the Ziethen Hussars, who were forward in the pursuit, rode as far as the gates of Königgrätz, and, finding 10 there were no sentries outside, rode11in; the guard, immediately on seeing 11 him in his Prussian uniform, turned out 12 and seized him, when,13 with a ready presence, he declared he had 14 come to demand 15 the capitulation of the fortress. He was conducted to the commandant, and made the same demand to 16 him, adding that 17 the town would

to him in poverty and disgrace.' The superlative dearest is to be used substantively: die Theuersten.

1 It-suspected. Turn here by

'one can well assume with reason (mit Grund annehmen).

2 Ingenious, here genial. 3 Had premeditated, planmäßig vorbereitet war.

See page 31, note 12. 5 Self-dubbed, selbsternannt. 6 Officer is here the subject of the sentence, and rode the assertion. Ziethen Hussars, Ziethen'sche Husaren. 7 Who were forward, say: die sich vorgewagt hatten. To the term pursuit add of the enemy.'

8 The literal translation of as far as would here be an Anglicism; transl. the same by bis zu.

9 Königgrätz is a fortress on the Elbe, in Bohemia. The battle alluded to was fought near that place on 3rd July, 1866.

10 Finding-outside, say: da er feine Schildwache daselbst vorfand. 11 Supply 'he;' the-seeing, so wie die Wache ihn...erblickte.

12 Turned out, trat sie ins Gewehr. 13 When, here worauf; a ready presence, rasche Geistesgegenwart.

14 Use the perfect conjunctive, and remember that to come is a verb denoting motion.

15 To demand, forbeen.

16 To make a demand to any one, an Jemand eine Forderung stellen.

17 By omitting here the conjunction that we obtain a more rhythmical construction, since the sentence assumes by this omission the form of a direct principal clause, and the inharmonious accumulation of verbs is thus avoided. Good writers have often recourse to this expedient, a circumstance which the student of German should bear in mind.


be bombarded if not surrendered1 within an hour; the commandant, unconscious2 that he was not dealing3 with a legitimate messenger, courteously refused to capitulate; but the Hussar was conducted out of the town, passed through the guard at the entrance, and got off safely without being made a prisoner.-H. M. HOZIER, The Seven Weeks' War.





Meantime Don John of Austria came to Louvain. *** The objects with which Philip had sent him to the Netherlands, that he might 10 conciliate the hearts of the inhabitants by the personal graces 11 which he had inherited from his imperial father, seemed in a fair way of accomplishment; 12 for it was 13 not only the venal applause of titled 14 sycophants that he strove to merit, but he mingled gaily and familiarly with 15 all classes of citizens.

1 If not surrendered, wenn die Uebergabe nicht. . . erfolgte.

2 Unconscious, transl. nicht ahnend, i.e. not anticipating.'

3 To deal, here unterhandeln ; legitimate, say: officiellen.

4 By placing but after Hussar the assertion becomes more emphatic. Out of the, zur... hinaus.

5 Passed through, passirte; at the, am. To get off safely, glücklich davon fommen. See page 36, note 4.

7 Don John of Austria, frequently called Don Juan d'Austria, son of the Emperor Charles V. was born at Ratisbonne in 1546, and died at the fortified camp of Namur in 1578. In 1576 he had been appointed Governor to the disaffected Netherlands by his brother, Philip II. Louvain, Löwen.

8 Object, here Absicht.

9 Insert the expletive 'namely.' 10 Use the pres. cond. of mögen, and turn conciliate by win.

11 Graces, transl. Liebenswürdigkeit. 12 Turn in-accomplishment by upon a good way to be accomplished.' To accomplish, erfüllen.

13 The English usage of making a verb emphatic by it is, was, &c., that, is not required in German, where the emphasis can be sufficiently marked by inverting the regular order of words, and beginning with the term to be emphasized.

14 Titled, transl. vornehm. 15 To mingle-with, here fich an. schließen. See page 24, note 8; gaily, fröhlich; familiarly, vertrau lich.

Every where his handsome face and charming manner1 produced their natural effect. He dined and supped2 with the magistrates in the Town-house; honoured3 general banquets of the burghers with his presence; and was affable and dignified, witty, fascinating, and commanding, by turns.


At Louvain the five military guilds held a solemn festival. The usual invitations were sent to the other societies and to all the martial brotherhoods the country round.6 Gay and gaudy processions, sumptuous banquets, military sports, rapidly succeeded each other.7 Upon the day of the great trial of skills all the high functionaries of the land were, according to custom, invited, and the Governor was graciously pleased 10 to honour11 the solemnity with his presence. Great was the joy of the multitude when Don John, complying with the habit 12 of imperial and princely personages in former days, enrolled himself, cross-bow is in hand, among the

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2 He-supped, er speiste zu Mittag und zu Abend.

3 To honour means both ehren and beehren; but there is a very nice distinction between these two verbs. Ehren signifies to entertain feelings of respect,' i.e. to revere, to esteem, &c., as Honour thy father and thy mother, Ehre Vater und Mutter. Beehren means 'to show marks of civility and respect,' i.e. to favour a person or thing by any outward distinction, as 'Favour me with a visit,' Beehren Sie mich mit einem Besuche. Here the Prince favoured the burghers with his presence: we must therefore say, Er beehrte die Bankette, since er ehrte, &c. would signify 'he revered the banquets.' The present case may aptly serve to illustrate the great advantage which the German language derives from the inseparable prefixes, there having been achieved here, as in innumerable other instances, a characteris


tic nicety by means of a simple prefix; general, here öffentlich.

4 Commanding, ehrfurchtgebietend; put by turns, abwechselnt, after was. 5 Military guild, Schüzengilde; to hold (a festival), begehen.

6 The country round, in der Umgegend; gay, heiter; gaudy, bunt. 7 To succeed each other, auf einander folgen.

8 Trial of skill, Kunstprobe. 9 Functionary, Beamte. 10 Was graciously pleased, ließ sich gnätig herab.

11 See above, note 3. nity, here Festlichkeit.


12 Complying with the habit and in former days, is to be rendered by the clause dem ehemaligen Gebrauche nachkommend.

13 Use the definite article both with cross-bow and hand, and retain the elliptical construction, which is generally used in German when the accusative is followed, as is the case here by an adv. exp. of place, viz., enrolled-hand, sich den Bogen in der Hand...aufnehmen ließ.

competitors. Greater still was the enthusiasm when the conqueror1 of Lepanto2 brought down the bird, and was proclaimed king of the year amid the tumultuous hilarity of the crowd. According to custom, the captains of the guild suspended a golden popinjay5 around the neck of his Highness, and, placing themselves in procession,6 followed him to the great church. Thence, after the customary religious exercises, the multitude proceeded9 to the banquet, where the health of the new king of the cross-bowmen 10 was pledged in deep potations.11-MOTLEY, Rise of the Dutch Republic.




I have, while 12 in England, heard and read more than once of the "docile 13 camel."

1 When the word conqueror is synonymous with victor,' it is rendered by Sieger.

2 Don John gained the great naval battle of Lepanto against the Turks in 1572.

3 Brought down, transl. herabschoß.

4 Transl. was proclaimed by wurde ausgerufen zum, in accordance with the rule that verbs of choosing, appointing, declaring, considering, and the like, do not govern in German, as is the case in English, Latin, and Greek, two accusatives, but express the office or dignity to which a person has been appointed, &c. by zu with the dative. The person appointed is alone put in the accusative, unless the passive construction be employed-as is the case in the above sentencewhen the nominative is used.

If "docile" means stupid,

6 Placing-procession, transl. indem sie eine Procession bildeten.

7 The third person plural of the personal pronoun must here be inserted.

8 Thence, von da aus; religious exercises, Andachtsübungen.

9 To proceed, here sich begeben. 10 Cross-bowmen, Armbrustschüßen. 11 Was-potations, in starken Zügen getrunken wurde.

12 If the word while istranslated, we must give the sentence in a complete form, i.e. while I was in England.' We can, however, construe the clause in a still more elliptical manner by omitting that adverb altogether, since the adverbial expression of place similar cases quite sufficient in German, viz., I have in England.


13 When docile refers to the temper of animals, it is rendered by Turn here popinjay simply by sanft; to mean, here bedeuten. 'bird.'

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