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well and good;1 in such a2 case the camel is the very model of docility. But if the epithet is intended to designate an animal that takes an interest in its rider, so far as a beast can;6 that in some way understands his intentions, or shares them in a subordinate fashion ; that obeys from a sort of submissive or half fellow-feeling with his master, like the horse and elephant; then I say that the camel is by no means docile: very much the contrary.1 He takes no heed of11 his rider; pays no attention 12 whether he be on his back 13 or not; walks straight on when once set a-going, merely because he is too stupid to turn aside; 14 and then, should some tempting thorn or green branch allure him out of 16 the path, continues 17 to walk on in this new direction simply 18 because he is too dull to turn back into the right road. His only care is to cross 19 as much pasture as he conveniently can while pacing mechanically onwards, and for effecting 20 this his long flexible neck sets him at great advantage;21 and a

1 Well and good, here so mag es hingehen.

2 Turn here such a by 'this.'

3 Here the word very is synonymous with 'real,' true -the French vrai. In German the adjective must here be preceded by the indefinite article.

4 But-intended, say briefly: soll aber der Austrud (i.e. expression). The supine is not used after the auxiliary verbs of mood.

5 The preposition in, referring to take interest, is rendered by an.

6 Turn as-can by 'it is possible to a beast.'

7 In some way, gewissermaßen. 8 The above clause will best be rendered idiomatically by translating shares them by auf dieselben eingeht, and fashion by Grad.

9 From, transl. aus. The term fellow may here be rendered by the adjective kameradschaftlich; but then with should be turned by 'for.'

10 Very-contrary, ganz im Gegentheil.

11 To take heed of, here fich füm


mern um. Ramel being neuter in German, the corresponding pronoun should be used throughout. 12 Pays no attention, render achtet nicht darauf.

13 Be-back, ihm auf dem Rücken fige; set a-going, in Bewegung ge bracht.

14 To turn aside, um abzulenken. 15 Thorn, here Dornbusch. 16 To allure out of, ablocken von. 17 The verb to continue, referring to an infinitive, as above, is generally expressed by the adverb weiter, and sometimes by fort. The infinitive is in this case used in the same tense as the verb to continue. Supply 'it' after the finite verb. 18 Simply merely; dull stupid; into, here 'upon.'



19 To cross, say: über... zu gehen; pasture, Weiderlag, to be used here in the plural; conveniently, mit Bequemlichkeit.

20 To effect, bewerkstelligen. See Extr. 9, note a.

21 To set at advantage, Vortheile gewähren.


hard1 blow or a downright2 kick alone has any influence on him whether3 to direct or impel. He will never attempt to throw you off his back,5 such a trick being far beyond his limited comprehension; but if you fall off, he will never dream of stoppings for you, and walks on just the same, grazing while he goes,10 without knowing or caring an atom 11 what has become of you.' 12 If turned loose,13 it is a thousand to 14 one that he will never find his 15 way back to his accustomed home or pasture, and the first comer 16 who picks him up 17 will have no particular shyness to get over; ;18 Jack or Tom are all the same 19 to him; and the loss of his old master and of his former cameline 20 companions gives him no regret, 21 and occasions no endeavour to find them again. One only symptom will 22 he give that he is aware 23 of his rider, and that is 24 when the

1 The literal translation of hard with reference to blow is also used in German, but mostly when the word is employed figuratively; used in the primitive sense, the usual German epithet is stark.

2 Downright, here entschieden, i. e. 'decided;' kick, Fußtritt.

3 Turn whether by 'be it,' and transl, to impel by anspornen.

4 The pronoun you, used in English colloquial speech indefinitely for one, any one,' is usually rendered in German by man, Jemand, or Niemand; by the two latter, more generally, when you occurs in the accusative, as is the case here.

5 Suppress in German the words his back, the verb to throw off fully indicating the action. Trick, Streich.

6 Turn far beyond by 'much too high for;' comprehension, here Verstand. Turn you by the rider.'

7 He-dream. We use in German the idiomatic expression es fällt ihm nicht im Traume ein.

8 To stop, here stehen bleiben. 9 And same, sondern es schreitet ruhig weiter.

10 While he goes may be briefly

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13 Turned loose, losgelassen.

14 To, here gegen.

15 See Extr. 34, note b. Accustomed home, here gewöhnlichen Aufentbaltsort; pasture, Weideplag.

16 The first comer is idiomatically rendered in German by der Erste Beste.

17 To pick up, here aufgreifen. 18 To get over, figuratively überwinden; Jack, &c., say Hans oder Peter. 19 Are-same, gilt ihm gleich.

20 Omit the adjective cameline. Generally it would be rendered by the noun Ramel, which is, however, not applicable here.

21 To give regret, Kummer machen.

22 This emphatic future not being used in German, the principal verbs must be rendered by the present indicative.

23 To be aware, here sich bewußt

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latter is about to mount1 him; for on such an2 occasion he will bend back his long snaky neck towards his master, open his enormous jaws to bite, if he dared,3 and roar out a tremendous sort of groan, as if to complain of 5 some entirely new and unparalleled injustice about to be done him. In a word," he is from first to last an undomesticated animal.-W. G. PALGRAVE, Narrative of a Year's Journey through Central and Eastern Arabia.



A remarkable anecdote is related 10 by Voltaire of 11 the circumstance that obtained for Leonard Torstenson 12 his first commission.13 He had been in close attendance on 14 the King of Sweden during the campaign in Livonia in 1624,15 and it happened,16 at a moment of importance,17

1 To mount is rendered by steigen when it is used intransitively, but it assumes a transitive meaning by means of the inseparable prefix be, which possesses the faculty of transforming intransitive verbs into transitive ones.

2 On such an, bei dieser.

3 Dared, say den Muth dazu hätte. 4 And-groan, und stößt eine Art schrecklichen Gestöhnes aus.

5 As of, als ob es sich beklagen wollte über. When an infinitive is preceded by as if, we generally express the condition by als ob... wollte; unparalleled, beispiellos.

6 About - him, die man ihm anthun will.

7 We say in German with one word;' from-last, transl. durch,


8 Undomesticated, ungeselliges, ¿.e. unsociable.

Speedy, schnell.

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11 Turn a-of by Voltaire relates a remarkable anecdote (Anekbote) of (in Bezug auf).'

12 Turn that Torstenson by 'through which L. T. obtained.' General Torstenson, born 1603 at Forstena, in Sweden, was one of the principal generals in the Thirty Years' War. He particularly excelled as a strategist, of which quality he gave, as related above, an early proof under the command of Gustavus Adolphus.

13 Commission (in military affairs), Offizierstelle. Less briefly, but more elegantly, we might render it here by Ernennung zum Offizier.

14 Place he-Sweden, befand er sich stets um den König von Schweden after '1624.' Livonia, Liefland. 15 Cf. Extr. 49, note b. 16 To happen, here sich fügen. 17 Turn in German the above

that his Majesty had no staff officer near him.1 Accordingly he entrusted 2 an order for an important movement to the hands of his squire, who, seeing a change in the enemy's plan of attack as he rode along,3 took upon himself the bold responsibility of making a corresponding change in the directions that his sovereign directed him to give.6

"Sire," said the youth on 8 his return to his royal master's side, "forgive me for what I have done; but when I saw the enemy was changing his line, I made a corresponding change in your 10 Majesty's orders."

Gustavus made no answer at the time; 11 but in the evening, when the page was about 12 to serve the table,13 as was his wont,14 he was commanded to sit down at the king's side,15 when the good-humoured monarch, threatening 16 him with the hand, said : Young man, what you

expression by 'in an important moment.' The pronoun his before names of titles, as Majesty, Excellency, &c., is in German turned by the abbreviated form Se. Seine: the pronoun Ihre, however, is in such cases rendered in full.

1 Near him, bei sich.

2 Render here to entrust by anvertrauen, for by zu, and squire by Page; in which last word the letter g is pronounced soft, as in French, and the e short, as in Freude.

3 Turn the clause who-along by who, when he as he rode along (beim Dahinreiten) a change in the plan of attack (Angriffsplan) of the enemy saw (here bemerkte).'

Took upon himself, übernahm. 5 Corresponding, entsprechend. 6 Turn in give by in the order which the king had given him for delivery' (zur Bestellung).

7 This term, derived from the Latin senior, is also used in German in addressing kings, &c.; the i is pronounced as in German, but the e is mute.

8 Render here on by the prep. bei, and to... side simply by zu.

Use the 2nd pers. pl. of vergeben,


and supply the conjunction that' after saw. Line, here Stellung.

10 The pronoun Euer was formerly written &wer; which obsolete mode of spelling is still officially retained before titles, but is generally given in the abbreviated form Em., which stands for all the respective forms of Euer.


11 Turn made time by swered nothing in the moment;' in the, here am.

12 The phrase to be about, denoting near futurity, is rendered in German by im Begriff sein, and sometimes by wollte, which latter expression corresponds, in this sense, to the English wanted.

13 To serve the table, bei Tafel aufzuwarten.

14 Turn as was his wont simply by as usual,' and was commanded by received the order.' Why the verb befehlen, which governs the dative of the person and the accusative of the thing, cannot be used in the passive voice will be seen from Ext. 22, note b.

15 At...side, neben; when, here worauf; good-humoured, gutgelaunt. 16 See Int. p. xvii., g.

did this1 morning might have cost you your life; but I see in you that you have the qualities of a great general, and I make you an ensign2 in a company of my Guards."3 -SIR EDW. CUST, The Warriors of the Thirty Years' War.




Goethe reached Strasburg on the 2nd April, 1770. He was now turned5 twenty; and a more magnificent youth never, perhaps,6 entered the Strasburg7 gates. Long before celebrity had fixed all eyes upon him he was likened to an Apollo; and once, when he entered 10 a dining-room, people11 laid down their knives and forks to stare at 12 the beautiful youth. Pictures and busts, even when most resembling, 13 give but 14 a feeble indication of that which was most 15 striking in his appearance: they give the form

1 Render this by heute, the time of morning having already passed; and render might by the infinitive können.

2 See page 36, note 4. 3 Guards, here Leibwache. 4 Supply the word 'years.' 5 Transl. turned by über; magnificent, herrlich.

6 Use here the adverb wohl, which indicates more forcibly than vielleicht the probability of an event. That adverb is generally placed before the word which has the principal accent,-here the term never. Entered, fam... durch.


7 Use the genitive case, and see Extr. 11, note a.

8 Celebrity, der Ruhm. Turn fixed -him by drawn the eyes of all (Aller) upon him.'

9 When can, as a rule, be rendered in four different ways:1st, by als, when it denotes an occurrence that has once taken place, —in this sense it corresponds to the

French lorsque; 2nd, by wenn, when it denotes an indefinite or habitual occurrence,-in this sense when is equivalent to whenever;' 3rd, by wann, in questions, signifying 'at what time;' 4th, by worauf, when standing for 'upon or after which.'

10 To enter, treten (in).

11 When people signifies persons in general, in the sense in which it is used here, we render it in German by Leute; when, however, it denotes the commonalty,' we translate it by Volf, as in French by peuple, and in Latin by popu


12 To stare at, here anstaunen. 13 Even resembling, selbst die ähnlichsten.

14 When but is synonymous with only, it is rendered by nur; when with merely, by bloß. Indication, transl. Begriff.

15 Most striking, am auffallendsten ; appearance, say äußern Erscheinung.

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