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of the features,1 but not the play of features; nor2 are they very accurate as to the form.

His features were large3 and liberally cut, as in the fine sweeping lines of Greek art. The brow was lofty and massive;5 and from beneath it shone large lustrous brown eyes of marvellous beauty, their pupils being of almost unexampled size. The slightly aquiline nose was large, and well cut. The mouth was full, with a short, arched, upper lip, very sensitive and expressive; the chin and jaw9 boldly proportioned; and the head rested on a handsome and muscular10 neck.

In stature 11 he was rather above the middle size: but although not really tall, he had the aspect 12 of a tall man; and is usually so described, because his presence 13 was very imposing. His frame 14 was strong, muscular, yet sensitive. Dante says this contrast is 15 in the nature of things, for

"Quanto la cosa è più perfetta,

Più senta 'l bene, e così la doglienza." "

1 Feature (of a face), 3ug; play line. The expression aquiline nose of features, Mienenspiel.

2 When nor introduces a sentence, it is rendered by auch...nicht; and when it follows the negative neither, by noch. Accurate, genau; as to, was...betrifft.

3 Render here large by fühn, and liberally by edel; cut, here gebildet. lines, den schön geschwun

4 The genen Linien.

5 Massive, here gewölbt; from beneath it, unter derselben hervor; of, here von.

6 Pupil (of the eye) is in German Pupille. We have also two genuine Teutonic words for the same thing, -viz. the homely Augapfel, i.e. the apple of the eye; and the poetical Augenstern, i.e. star of the eye. Size, here Größe.

7 There is in German no exact equivalent for the adjective aqui

would be rendered by Adlernase, whilst a slightly aquiline nose must be somewhat freely translated by eine leichtgebogene Nase. Well, here fein.

8 Very-expressive, äußerst sensitiv und ausdrucksvoll.

9 The article must be repeated before Kinnbacken (jaw), since it differs in number and gender from the preceding noun. Boldly proportioned, in kühnen Proportionen.

10 Muscular, muskulös.

11 In stature, von Gestalt; rather, here etwas; middle size, Mittelgröße.

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12 Aspect, Aussehen; turn tall by 'tall-grown;' transl. so by als solcher. 13 Presence, here persönliche Erscheinung; imposing, imponirent.

14 Frame, in the sense in which it is used here, means in German Körperbau. Transl. yet by und doch. 15 Use here the verb liegen.

Longfellow translates the above with literal faithfulness by

"As the thing more perfect is,

The more it feels of pleasure and of pain."

DANTE'S Inferno, Canto VI. v. 107, &c.

Excelling1 in all active sports,2 he was almost a barometer in sensitiveness to atmospheric influences.


Such, externally, was the youth who descended at the hotel Zum Geist, in Strasburg, this 2nd April, and who, ridding himself of the dust and "ennui" of a long imprisonment in the diligence, sallied forth to gaze at the famous cathedral,10 which made a wonderful impression on him as 11 he came up to it 12 through the narrow streets.— G. H. LEWES, Life of Goethe.

1 The present participle implying here a concession, turn it by though he excelled;' and insert in the principal clause, to be given in an inverted form, the conj. doch after he. To excel, here sich auszeichnen.

2 There does not exist in most continental languages a single equivalent for the comprehensive term sport. The English term has been adopted abroad, but more in reference to horse races. Render here active sports by_Leibesübungen, and see the note to Ext. 7.

3 Transl. in sensitiveness by in seiner Empfindlichkeit, and turn to by 'against.'

4 Transl. such was by so war das Aeußere, and put youth in the genitive case.

5 To descend at (an hotel, &c.), absteigen in. Goethe makes use of this identical verb in relating his arrival at Strasburg in his autobiography,,Wahrheit und Dichtung." The hotel alluded to he simply calls Wirthshaus.

6 Transl. here this by an dem be fagten; and see for the construction of the above sentences Extr. 4, note a.

7 Render here ridding-of by abschüttelnd; ennui, die Langeweile.

8 The expression diligence is also⚫

used, with the French pronunciation, in German. The words Eil. or Schnellwagen are also employed as equivalents for that term.

9 Sallied forth, transl. fort eilte; to gaze at, here besehen.

To The cathedral (of Strasburg) is commonly called in German der (Straßburger) Münster; which term being derived from the GræcoLatin expression monasterium, is sometimes also used in the neuter gender.

11 The conjunction as may generally be translated in the following ways:-1st, in comparisons by als or wie; by the latter more generally when perfect equality is to be expressed. In this case as is frequently rendered by so wie, more particularly when two actions are compared: e.g. He acts as he speaks, Er handelt so wie er spricht. 2nd, when it occurs twice-before and after an adjective-the first as is generally rendered by fo: e.g. As cold as ice, So kalt wie Eis. 3rd, when it stands for 'if' it is rendered by wenn; when for 'since' by da; when for

because' by weil; when for whilst by da (sometimes by wie); and when for the conj. when, as above, by als.

12 Came-it, vor demselben ankam.




The next day they rose at five: their morning prayers were finished, when, as the day dawned, a war-whoop and a flight of arrows announced an attack from Indians.6 They were of the tribe of the Nausites, who knew the English as kidnappers; but the encounter was without further result. Again1 the boat's crew give thanks to God.10 and steer their bark along the coast for the distance of 11 fifteen leagues. But no convenient harbour is 12 discovered. The pilot of the boat, who had been in these regions before, gives assurance of a good one,13 which may be reached before night; and they follow his guidance.

1 The Pilgrims alluded to in the above extract were a number of Covenanters who, being persecuted under James I. for their opposition to the Church of England, emigrated to Holland. But being desirous to remain under English rule, and to do service to their native country as loyal citizens, they left Holland in 1620, in order to found an English settlement in America.

2 Use the accusative case.

3 Render morning prayers by the compound Morgenandacht, to be used in the singular only; finished, here verrichtet.

4 When is here to be rendered by da, and the verb announced placed immediately after that adverb; as-dawned, bei Tagesanbruch.

5 The term flight, referring to arrows, is rendered by Schauer, i.e. 'shower.'

6 There exists in German a very convenient mode of distinguishing the aborigines of East India from those of the West Indies or of the American continent. The former are called Indier or Inder, and the

latter Indianer. As regards the adjectives indisch and indianisch, the same distinction is made, but is not quite so strictly adhered to.

7 Translate were by gehörten ... an, and of-Nausites by dem Stamm der Nausiten.

8 Turn who knew the English by 'to whom the English were known;' kidnapper, here Menschenräuber.

9 Transl. encounter by the frequentative noun formed from fechten, and turn was without further result by 'had no further consequences.'

10 Turn again. God, by the boat's crew (Schiffsmannschaft) thanks God anew (von Neuem);' crew requires in German the sing. only.


11 Translate for the distance of simply by weit, placing this adverb at the end of the sentence. term league may here be turned by 'mile,' though, arithmetically speaking, a German mile is longer than a league by 1.63 of an English mile.

12 See the note to Ext. 8, and use the third person plural.

13 The above elliptical construction is not admissible in German,



After some hours' sailing,1 a storm of snow and rain2 begins; the sea swells: the rudder breaks-the boat must now be steered with oars. The storm increases; night5 is at hand to reach the harbour before dark, as much sail as possible is borne; the mast breaks into three pieces; the sail falls overboard; but the tide is favourable. The pilot, in3 dismay, would have run the boat on shore in a cove 10 full of breakers. "About with her," exclaimed a sailor, "or we are cast away!" 12 They get her about 13 immediately, and passing14 the surf, they enter 15 a fair sound, and shelter themselves 16 under the lee of a small rise of land. 17 It is dark, and the rain beats furiously yet the men are so wet and cold and weak, they 19 slight the danger to be apprehended 20 from the savages, and after great difficulty 21 kindle a fire on shore.


where it would be necessary to supply before a good one the words 'that there was;' but we can contract the above clause with the following one, turning them briefly by 'assures that they could reach (erreichen) a good one before night.'

1 Use the third person plural of to sail in the pluperfect tense.

2 The expression Schneesturm sounds like an Anglicism, though we use Hagelsturm, and some modern German writers have coined the word Regensturm. Turn, therefore, the above clause by 'a storm rises, accompanied by snow and rain.' 3 Swells, geht hoch. 4 To steer, here lenken. 5 Use the definite article, and render at hand by rückt heran. 6 See Extr. 9, note a. Dark, here Dunkelwerden.

7 Use in German the plural number, and render here to bear by aufspannen. See also Extr. 4, note b.

8 Supply here the pronoun his, and see for the construction of the clause Extr. 5, note b.

9 Render the clause would-shore by hätte...das Boot.....stranden lassen. 10 Cove, here Bucht; of breakers, brandender Wogen.

11 About with her, wendet!

12 The nautical expression to cast or to be cast away is rendered in German an ten Strand treiben.

13 Translate to get about by um wenden, immediately by sofort, and omit the pronoun her.

14 Render here passing by indem fie... durchschiffen.

15 To enter, here gelangen (in); fair sound, ruhige Veerenge.

16 To shelter oneself, Schuß finden; lee, Leeseite, pronounced entirely as a German word, it being a genuine Teutonic expression.

17 Small rise of land, sanfte Erhöhung.

18 Beats furiously, here strömt heftig nieder.

19 In similar constructions the conjunction that cannot be omitted in German. To slight, here ver achten.

20 The English passive participial constructions, expressing relations of possibility or necessity, are generally changed in German into the active form by means of the supine. Here to be apprehended which was to apprehend (befürchten). 21 Turn after great difficulty hy 'with great trouble' (Mühe).


Morning, as it dawned, showed the place to be1 a small island within the entrance2 of a harbour. The day was required for rest and preparations. Time was precious; the season advancing;5 their companions were left in suspense. 6 The next day was the "Christian Sabbath." Nothing marks the character of the Pilgrims more fully, than that they kept it sacredly, though every consideration demanded haste.10

On Monday the11 11th day of December, old style, 12 the exploring party 13 of the forefathers land at Plymouth.* * * The spot, when examined,11 seemed to invite a settlement;15 and in 16 a few days the Mayflower was safely moored 17 in its harbour. In memory of 18 the hospitalities 19 which the company had received at 20 the last English port from which they had sailed, this oldest New England colony 21 obtained the name of Plymouth. - GEORGE BANCROFT, History of the United States.

1 Turn Morning-be by 'when the morning dawned (graute) it was discovered (zeigte es sich) that the place was.

2 Within the entrance, am Eingang. Required may here be rendered by the predicative adjective nöthig.

Since the term Ausruhen (rest) requires the definite article, here contracted with the preposition zu, and the word Vorbereitungen (preparations) does not require the article, on account of its being used in a general sense in the plural number, the preposition zu must be repeated before preparations.

5 We should use here in German the past participle, vorgeschritten, i, e. advanced. Companions, Gefährten. Left in suspense, in banger Un gewißheit zurückgelassen.

7 The word next should in the above phrase be turned by 'following.'

8 Marks, here bezeichnet; more fully = better.

To keep sacredly might be rendered literally, or in accordance

with Luther's translation of the Fourth Commandment, by heiligen. 10 Turn every haste by all considerations (Rücksichten) urged to the (zur) haste.'

11 See page 44, note 2.

12 Retain the corresponding foreign term, and use the genitive case. 13 Exploring party, Expedition.

14 When examined, bei genauer Untersuchung. For the construction of the whole clause see Extr. 5, note b.

15 In German the accusative case would not be used here; we must therefore supply the preposition zu after invite.

16 Turn here in by 'after.'

17 Was... moored, lag... vor Anker. Retain the name of the boat-Mayflower-using it as a fem. noun.

18 In memory of, zur Erinnerung an. 19 Use the singular of hospitalities, and turn received by joyed.'

20 At, in; port, Hafen.

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21 Turn this-colony by this oldest colony in New England.'

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