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For2 twenty miles on either side of the Border ther grew up a population who were trained from their cradles in licensed marauding.5 Nominal amity between

the countries operated as but a slight check upon habits inveterately lawless; and though the Governments affected to keep order, they could not afford to be severe upon offences committed in time of peace 10 by men on whom they chiefly depended for the defence 11 of the frontiers in time of war. The scanty 12 families in the fortified farms

1 In analogy with the expressions Landkrieg, war on land, Seefrieg, naval war, &c. we may also form a compound term of the words Grenze, border, and Fehte, feud, by simply joining them together without any connecting link, after suppressing the final vowel of Grenze.

2 For, here auf; either = both. 3 Collective nouns occurring without any sign of the plural require in German, as a rule, the verb and pronoun referring to them in the singular only. Trained, erzogen; from,

4 See note b to Extract 34, and use cradles in the singular.

5 In licensed marauding, zu autorisirter Plünderung. Nominal, nominell.

6 Operated upon, that ten... nur geringen Einhalt. Turn the adverb inveterately by the adjective eingewurzelt, and place the same, together with lawless, zügellos, as attributes before habits."

7 Affected being here synonymous with 'pretended,' is to be rendered by fich stellen; to keep = as if (ob) they kept.


8 The verb to afford is one of

those comprehensive English expressions which can be hardly in any other modern idiom rendered by a single equivalent. Render her they afford, by so konnten sie es dennoch nicht wagen.

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9 Turn to committed by 'to punish severely offences (Vergehen) which were committed.'

10 The expressions time of peace and time of war are to be rendered here by compound substantives formed by adding in the first instance the term times to the genitive of peace, and in the second instance by adding the term times to the genitive of war. The first mode of forming compound expressions, i.e. by simply joining them together-especially when both members are substantiveshas been pointed out before; and the present instances furnish an example of the second mode, which consists in adding the subordinate member to the genitive of the principal one.

11 On - defence, auf welche sie sich...als Vertheitiger...rorzüglich ver lassen mußten. 12 Scanty



and granges1 in Roxburgh and Northumberland slept with their 2 swords under their pillows,3 and their horses saddled in their stables. The blood of the children by the fireside was stirred by tales of wild adventure in song and story;5 and perhaps for two centuries no boy ever grew to man's estate along a strip of land forty miles across and joining the two seas 8 who had not known the midnight terror of a blazing homestead,10 who had not seen his father or brother ride out 11 at dusk harnessed and belted for some night foray, to be brought back before morning,12 gory and stark, across the saddle, and 13 been roused from his bed by his mother to swear with his child's lips 14 a vow of revenge over the corpse.

And the fierce feuds of the Mosstroopers 15 were but an expression in its 16 extreme form of the animosity between the two nations. The English 17 hated Scotland because Scotland had successfully 18 defied them: the Scots hated

1 Farms, Farmhäuser; granges, Geljöfte.

2 See page 35, note 14. 3 Use the singular, and see for the possessive pronouns n. b to Ext. 34. Saddled, transl. standen gesattelt. 5 Turn The-story by the blood of the children was through narrations by the fire-side (am Herde) of wild adventures in song and story (Sage) stirred up.'

6 Perhaps is to be placed after centuries, and for turned by 'during.'

7 Grew to man's estate, erwuchs... zum Mannesalter.

8 Turn along-seas by 'upon a forty miles wide and on the two seas bordering strip of land' (Landstrich).

9 Use for midnight the attributive adjective mitternächtlich.

10 Homestead, transl. Heimstätte. 11 Ride out, here fortreiten; harnessed-for, geharnischt und gerüstet zu; night nightly.

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12 Before morning, here Tagesanbruch; across, transl über... liegend.

13 Supply 'who had not.' The verb aufwecken, for to rouse, would be here hardly expressive enough. Besides, we should then have to paraphrase the words from his bed by 'from his sleep.' But we may properly use here the very expressive and poetical term aufschrecken, somewhat corresponding to the verb to startle.

14 Child's lips, kindliche Lippen; vow of revenge, Nachgelübde.

15 The only adequate expression for the term Mosstrooper, peculiar to Scotland of bygone times, seems to be Grenzräuber.

16 Turn its by 'the,' and retain the expression form; of, here von; animosity, Erbitterung.

17 When the term English stands for the people of England,' we must render it by the equivalent of the word 'Englishmen:' when it is used adjectively, however, it is translated by englisch. rule applies to the names of other nations.


18 Turn successfully by 'with success;' to defy, Troz bieten.

England as an enemy on the watch1 to make them slaves. The hereditary hostility strengthened with time, and each generation added fresh injuries to the accumulation of bitterness.


Fortunately for mankind,5 however, the relations between nations are not eventually determined by sentiment and passion. The mutual sufferings inflicted by the existing condition of things produced its effect in minds where reason was admitted to influence.10-FROUDE, History of England.



About 12 the year 1760, as Miller 13 was dining at Pontefract with the officers 14 of the Durham militia, one 15 of them, knowing his love of music, told him they had 16 a

1 On the watch, translate der auf die Gelegenheit lauerte.

2 See page 36, note 4. 3 Turn strengthened by 'became stronger.'

4 Retain here the term generation, pronouncing the same as a German word; to- bitterness, der aufgesammelten Erbitterung...hinzu.

5 Mankind, here Menschheit, to be used with the definite article. 6 Eventually being here used in the sense of ultimately,' is to be rendered by schließlich.

7 Turn sentiment and passion by 'feelings and passions.'

8 The contracted construction of the above clause The-things makes it in German necessary to give it in a completely different form. Turn therefore by the sufferings which through the existing order (Thatbestand) of things were inflicted upon (zugefügt) both parties.'

9 To produce an effect, eine Wir kung hervorbringen (auf); mind, here Gemüth.

10 Was-influence, Eingang fand. 11 Hautboy-player and, further on, performer on the hautboy, oboenbläser, or simply Hoboist.

12 Translate here the adverb about by um, and turn the sentence by 'as (als) Miller about, &c.'

13 The above refers to Dr. Miller, organist at Pontefract, known as the historian of Doncaster.

14 Military and naval officers are called Offiziere, and civil officers Beamte. Durham militia = militia of Durham.

15 The subordinate clause of the above sentence preceding the principal one, we must give the latter in an inverted form, i.e. begin with the principal verb, told (him). For love of music see page 62, note 12.

16 According to the rule mentioned page 29, note 3, we should

young German in their band,1 as performer on the hautboy, who had only been a few months in England, and yet spoke3 English almost as well as a native, and who was also an excellent performer on the violin 5 the officer added that if Miller would come into another room this German should entertain him with a solo.


The invitation was gladly accepted, and Miller heard a solo of Giardini's 10 executed in 11 a manner that surprised him. He afterwards took 12 an opportunity of having some private conversation with the young musician, and asked him whether he had engaged 18 himself for any long period to the Durham militia. The answer was,14 "Only from month to month." 15 “Leave them then," said the organist,

use here the present conjunctive: the preference ought, however, to be given to the present conditional, which is frequently used in dependent clauses containing the quotation, when the verb of the principal clause is employed in the imperfect or pluperfect.

1 A regimental band is called in German Musikcorps or Musikbande.

2 Insert here the preposition jeit, since, which denotes in German 'the whole period of an event, including the present time,' and use the aux. verb fein in the pres. conjunctive. Only, here erst.

3 See preceding page, note 16.

As well as, eben so gut wie. It may here be mentioned as a caution that the general similarity between the English words good, well, and the German gut, wohl, very frequently misleads the students of German in their translations. It will in this place be sufficient to point out in general that the German adverb wohl does by no means stand in the same relation to the adjective gut as the English well does to the adjective good. Gut is in German, like every other adjective, also used as an adverb, and the use of wohl in its adverbial capacity is limited


to a few verbs only, more particularly to those relating to the moral and physical condition of a person; as, sich wohl befinden, es ist mir wohl, &c. The adverb wohl is, besides, used in compound terms, and still more frequently as an expletive. 5 Performer on the violin = violin-player.

6 To add, here hinzusehen.

7 Use the present conditional of wollen.

8 Entertain him with, transl. ihm ein...vorspielen.

9 Gladly, here mit Freuden.

10 The genitive relation being in German expressed with sufficient distinctness by means of the preposition von, of, the proper name itself need not be put in the genitive case.

11 We use in German, in the above phrase, the preposition auf with the accusative.

12 To take (an opportunity), ergreifen; some private conversation, eine Privatunterhaltung.


13 To engage, here engagiren; for period, auf längere Zeit; to, here

14 Was, transl. lautete. Cf. page 23, note 14.

15 Turn from month to month simply by 'monthly;' them, here fic.

"and come and live1 with me. I am a single man,2 and think we shall be happy together; and doubtless your merit will soon entitle3 you to a more eligible situation."

The offer was accepted as frankly as it was made: and the reader may imagine with what satisfaction Dr. Miller must have remembered this act of generous feeling when he hears that this young German was Herschel the astronomer.-SOUTHEY, The Doctor.



In the first place9 Cranford is in possession of the 10 Amazons: all the hoiders" of houses above a certain rent

1 When to live is synonymous with to reside, it is translated by wohnen; with, here bei.

2 Single man, Junggesell. Supply after and the first personal pronoun, and turn think by believe,' as in most cases when it stands for to conclude, imagine,' &c. 3 Entitle, transl. verhelfen; eligible situation, passende Stelle.


4 Frankly, freimüthig. strue the offer was as frankly accepted as it was made.' When is used to express an equality of two compared actions, we must translate it by so or eben so...als. When the equality refers to nouns, we generally use wie instead of als. 5 Turn here imagine by the reflective form of ' to think.'

6 Satisfaction, Befriedigung, i.e. gratification.

7 To remember, sich erinnern, governs the genitive; act-feeling, transl. großmüthige Handlung.

8 Place the astronomer before Herschel. The celebrated astronomer, Wilhelm Herschel, was born at Hanover in 1738. His

father, himself a musician, gave him instruction in music, and sent him over to this country to seek his fortune. The Earl of Darlington engaged him for the regimental band of the Durham militia, and afterwards Herschel settled in the neighbourhood of Leeds, Pontefract, and Durham as a teacher of music, devoting himself at the same time to that science which has made his name so illustrious.

9 In-place, vor Allem.

10 The above clause may serve to illustrate a characteristic difference in the use of the article in German and in English. The term possession requires the definite article, on account of the object being singled out definitely, whilst the expression Amazons does not require it, because the statement does not refer to them in a definite manner, but only in a general way, in which case the preposition von is quite sufficient.

11 Holders, transl. Bewohner; rent (of houses, &c.), Miethe, Viethzins.

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