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are women. If a married couple1 come to settle in the town, somehow the gentleman2 disappears he is either fairly frightened to death by being the only man in the Cranford evening parties, or he is accounted for by being with his regiment, his ship, or closely engaged in business all the week in the great neighbouring commercial town of Drumble, distant only twenty miles on a railroad.8 In short, whatever does become of the gentlemen, they are not at Cranford: what could they 10 do if they were there?



The surgeon 11 has his round of thirty miles,12 and sleeps at Cranford; but every man cannot be a surgeon. keeping 13 the trim gardens full of choice flowers, without a weed to speck them, 14 for frightening away 15 little boys who look wistfully at the said 16 flowers through the railings, for rushing out at 17 the geese that occasionally venture into the gardens if the gates are left open, for deciding all questions of literature and politics 18 without

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5 He-for, transl. es heißt. The words by being must here be turned by that he is;' with, here bei.

6 Closely-business, von Geschäften sehr stark in Anspruch genommen; all the the whole.

7 Commercial town, Handelsstadt. 8 Distant-railroad, die nur zwan zig Meilen weit an der Eisenbahn liegt. 9 In short, turz; whatever, was auch immer. The adverb auch is here an expletive The emphatic does remains in German untranslated.

1 Here, too, we should make use of the expletive auch.

11 When the noun surgeon is

used, as is the case here, in a general
sense for a 'medical man,' it must
be rendered simply by Arzt, and not
by Wundarzt, which latter term
corresponds to the word surgeon in
its primary sense only, viz.
who cures by manual operation.'
The more dignified expression for
the latter signification is now in
German Chirurg.


12 The clause his - miles may be freely rendered by eine Praris rie sich auf dreißig Meilen in die Runce erstreckt.

13 To keep, erhalten, to be used here with the supine preceded by um. Trim, zierlich; of choice, transl. ber schönsten.

14 Turn without-them by 'free from every weed'

15 To frighten away, verscheuchen; wistfully, here sehnsüchtig.

16 Said, in the sense of 'beforementioned,' besagt.

17 To rush out at, losstürzen auf; venture, here sich wagen; gate, Thüre.

18 Turn of literature and politics by 'literary and political,' employ



troubling themselves with1 unnecessary reasons or arguments, for obtaining clear2 and correct knowledge of everybody's affairs in the parish, for keeping their neat maid-servants3 in admirable order, for kindness (somewhat dictatorial) to the poor, and real, tender, good offices to each other whenever they are in distress, the ladies of Cranford are quite sufficient." "A man," as one of them observed to me once, "is so in the way in the house!" Although the ladies of Cranford know all each other's proceedings, they are exceedingly indifferent to each other's 10 opinions. Indeed, as each has her own individuality, not to say eccentricity,11 pretty strongly developed, nothing is so easy 12 as verbal retaliation; but somehow 13 good-will reigns among them to a considerable degree. The Cranford ladies have only an occasional 14 little quarrel, spirted out 15 in a few peppery words and angry jerks of the head; just enough to prevent the even tenor 16 of their lives from becoming too flat. 17 Their dress 18 is very


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10 To each other's, gegen ihre gegenseitigen.

11 Turn as-eccentricity by 'since the individuality, not to say eccentricity, of each (einer Jeden) is.' The corresponding foreign forms of individuality and eccentricity may be retained in German.

12 Render so easy by ihnen nichts leichter, and as verbal retaliation by als mündliche Repressalien (reprisals) zu nehmen.

13 But somehow, transl. dennoch fügt es sich so; good-will, Wohlwollen; to a considerable in a high.

14 Occasional, gelegentlich.

15 Spirted out, transl. der sich... Luft macht; peppery sharp; jerks of the head, Kopfbewegungen.

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16 Even tenor, ruhige Gang. For the expression lives compare Extract 50, note a.

17 Turn from-flat by 'that...becomes too flat' (schal).

18 When the term dress stands, as is the case here, for 'clothing in

9 All-proceedings, sämmtlich ihr general,' we render it by Kleitung, gegenseitiges Thun und Lassen.

somewhat corresponding to the


independent of fashion, as they observe, "What does it signify how we dress2 here at Cranford, where everybody knows us?" And if they go from home,3 their reason is equally cogent: "What does it signify how we dress here, where nobody knows us ?"-MRS. GASKELL, Cranford.




Long before midnight the troops were all in motion, and at half-past one in the morning5 the general staff left Kamenitz. The moon occasionally shone out brightly, but was generally hidden behind clouds, and then could be distinctly seen the decaying? bivouac fires in the places which had been occupied 10 by the troops along the


These fires looked like large will-o'-the-wisps as 11 their flames flickered about 12 in the wird, and stretched for nany a mile,13 for there were 100,000 soldiers with the


French habillement; but when it signifies a single garment, it is to be rendered by Kleid.

1 Does it signify, liegt daran. 2 To dress, fich fleiden. In German the reflective form occurs far more frequently than in English, there being but few German verbs which can be used both in a transitive and intransitive sense.

3 Go from home, verreisen; cogent, triftig.

4 See page 49, note 1.

5 Use for the adverbial expression in the morning the genitive res Morgens, which case is generally used, with or without the article, when the point of time is indicated in an indefinite manner.

6 General staff, Generalstab.

occasionally is here dann und wann. 8 The agent from whom the activity proceeds not being expressed, we should not employ here the passive voice in German; but since the reflective form, requisite in similar cases, would not be appplicable in the present instance, the active voice, with the indefinite pronoun man, ought to be used.

9 Decaying, here erlöschend. Bivouac fires is in German a compound term.

10 To occupy (used as a military expression), beseßen. 11 As, da. Turn their by 'the.' 12 To flicker about, hin und her fladern.

13 For many a mile, transl. meilen. weit. Turn soldiers by 'men,' and

7 The idiomatic rendering for see n. d to Extr. 32; with, hero bei.

First Army alone, and the bivouacs of so great a force1 spread over a wide extent of country. Day gradually began to break,2 but with the first symptoms of dawn a drizzling rain came on, which lasted until late in the afternoon. The wind increased and blew coldly upon the soldiers, for they were short of both sleep and food,6 while frequent gusts bore down to the ground the water-laden corn in the wide fields alongside the way.


The main road from Horitz to Königgrätz sinks into a deep hollow near the village of Milowitz. On the side of this hollow furthest from 10 Horitz is placed near the road the village of that name,11 and on the left of the road, on the same bank, stands a thick fir-wood. A little after12 midnight the army of Prince 13 Frederick Charles was entirely concealed in this hollow, ready to issue 14 from its ambush and attack the Austrians if they should advance.

Soon after dawn a 15 person standing between the village of Milowitz and the further hill of Dub could see no

1 Force will here best be rendered by Truppenmasse; to spread, sich ausbreiten; extent of country, Landstrecken (pl.).

2 To break (referring to day), anbrechen. Use the imperfect. 3 Symptoms, Zeichen; drizzling rain, feiner Regen or Nebelregen; came on= began.

4 To last, here anhalten; in the,


5 The phrase blew coldly upon the soldiers must in German be rather freely rendered by und die Soldaten fühlten seine Schärfe, in order to express distinctly that the soldiers felt the wind the more keenly in consequence of want of sleep and food.

6 The clause they-food may be turned by 'they had had neither enough sleep nor food' (Nahrung).

7 Gust, Windstoß; to bear down to the ground, briefly zu Boten werfen.

Alongside, längs.

9 Main road, Hauptstraße; to sink, here sich senten; hollow, Hohl, weg.

10 Furthest from, die weitesten entfernt liegt; is placed, befindet sich.

11 Render of that name by ge, nannte, placing it before village. Stands is; thick, here dicht.

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12 Translate a little in the above phrase by bald.

13 The German language has two expressions for the word prince, viz. Prinz and Fürst. The former title, to be used here, is given to descendants of sovereign princes as long as they do not exercise any sovereign power; and the latter, in a general sense, to all sovereign rulers, as kings, emperors, dukes, &c., and, in a more limited sense, to rulers of principalities, and to those who have been raised to the titular dignity of prince.

14 To issue, hervorbrechen.
15 See next page, note 1.


armed men1 except a few Prussian vedettes2 posted along the Dub ridge,3 whose lances stood in relief above the summit against the murky sky. A few dismounted 5 officers were standing below a fruit-tree in front of Milowitz, with their horses held by some orderlies behind them.6 These were Prince Frederick Charles and his staff. All was still except when the neigh of a horse or a loud word of command, as the last division formed, rose mysteriously from the hollow of Milowitz.


Until nearly four o'clock the army remained concealed. *** To hold the Austrian army in front of the Elbe was absolutely necessary for the success of the Prussian plans, 10 and Prince Frederick Charles resolved with his own army alone11 to engage the whole of Benedek's forces, 12 and, clinging to 13 the Austrian commander,

1 A-men. The whole of the above clause must be given in German, where we should use the conditional in a different form; arrange therefore: would a person (hätte Jemand), who between the village of Milowitz and the further hill of Dub (entfernterm Dubhügel); and insert here the verb 'stood (gestanden) for standing, and could see (sehen können) after men (Mannschaft). On the omission of the aux. verb after gestanden, cf. Ext. 47, n. e.

2 We use also in German the foreign military expressions Vedette for a sentinel on horseback,' and postirt for posted.

3 Dub ridge, Rücken des Dubhügels. 4 Stood in relief, stark abstachen; murky, trüb.

5 The adjective dismounted must in German be turned into a regular clause with a finite verb, viz. die von ihren Pferden abgestiegen waren. We also use the foreign military expression demontiren, but more in its transitive meaning, i.e. to unhorse soldiers,' or 'to disable cannon.'

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7 See page 41, note 9.

8 Word of command, Commandowort; as, während; to form, sich aufstellen; rose, here herausscholl.

9 In front, transl. diesseits. 10 The German version of the above clause can be made more emphatic by employing the grammatical subject es, which, besides with impersonal verbs-as es regnet, &c.-is used for the sake of emphasis, or to impart more poetic colouring to a construction, -as co heult der Sturm, es braust das Meer. The real subject follows in such a case the inflected verb, and sometimes even other far less important parts of the sentence. Turn, therefore, the above clause by 'it was for the success of the Prussian plans absolutely (durchaus) necessary to hold,' &c.

11 The adverb alone, bloß. has in the above clause the emphasis: place it, therefore, at the beginning of the clause, viz. alone with, &c. To engage = to attack.

12 The whole of... forces, die Gesammtmacht.

13 To cling (to), fich klammern (an). The preposition an governs here the accusative case.


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